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Table 1 Clinical and laboratory characteristics of FH patients with or without an incident cardiovascular event

From: Circulating PCSK9 and cardiovascular events in FH patients with standard lipid-lowering therapy

Variables Overall
(N = 338)
Without events (N = 305) With events
(N = 33)
p-value
Clinical factors
Age, years 49.38 ± 11.35 49.34 ± 11.32 49.67 ± 11.81 0.877
Male, n (%) 198 (58.6) 178 (58.4) 20 (60.6) 0.894
BMI, kg/(m2) 25.49 ± 3.41 25.42 ± 3.38 26.11 ± 3.66 0.282
Normal weight, n (%) 155 (45.9) 143 (46.9) 12 (36.4)  
Overweight, n (%) 134 (39.6) 119 (39.0) 15 (45.5)  
Obesity, n (%) 49 (14.5) 43 (14.1) 6 (18.2)  
Prior CAD, n (%) 189 (55.9) 166 (54.4) 23 (69.7) 0.093
Family history of CAD, n (%) 157 (46.4) 145 (47.5) 12 (36.4) 0.221
Currently smoking, n (%) 141 (41.7) 126 (41.3) 15 (45.5) 0.657
Alcohol drinker, n (%) 67 (19.8) 61 (20.0) 6 (18.2) 0.173
Hypertension, n (%) 146 (43.2) 125 (41.0) 21 (63.6) 0.012
Diabetes, n (%) 61 (18.0) 55 (18.0) 6 (18.2) 0.971
Baseline statin use, n (%) 263 (77.8) 234 (76.7) 29 (87.9) 0.143
Tendon xanthoma, n (%) 26 (7.7) 24 (7.9) 2 (6.1) 0.711
Definite FH, n (%) 222 (65.7) 199 (65.2) 23 (69.7) 0.609
Laboratory factors
TG, mmol/L 1.63 (1.21–2.14) 1.61 (1.18–2.11) 1.84 (1.40–2.46) 0.210
TC, mmol/L 7.00 ± 2.07 6.98 ± 2.03 7.24 ± 2.41 0.488
HDL-C, mmol/L 1.11 ± 0.32 1.12 ± 0.32 1.02 ± 0.33 0.110
LDL-C, mmol/L 5.20 ± 1.78 5.19 ± 1.79 5.23 ± 1.75 0.901
ApoA, g/L 1.31 ± 0.31 1.32 ± 0.31 1.28 ± 0.37 0.502
ApoB, g/L 1.45 ± 0.45 1.44 ± 0.45 1.56 ± 0.47 0.141
Lp(a), mg/dL 34.95
(14.35–67.11)
32.29
(13.37–66.19)
55.09
(26.96–77.82)
0.025
HsCRP, mg/L 1.52 (0.71–3.20) 1.40 (0.69–3.06) 2.34 (0.88–4.67) 0.095
FPG, mmol/L 5.54 ± 1.50 5.48 ± 1.44 6.02 ± 1.87 0.115
HbA1C,  % 6.12 ± 1.05 6.10 ± 1.02 6.28 ± 1.27 0.364
WBC, ng/mL 6.34 ± 1.78 6.31 ± 1.81 6.54 ± 1.52 0.475
LYM, ng/mL 2.06 ± 0.66 2.07 ± 0.68 1.92 ± 0.50 0.226
PCSK9, ng/mL 322.18
(249.97–396.24)
311.89
(246.73–386.61)
332.47
(294.74–448.96)
0.038
FH mutations 191 (56.5) 172 (57.0) 19 (56.4) 0.896
LDLR, n (%) 126 (37.3) 116 (38.0) 10 (30.3)  
APOB, n (%) 31 (9.2) 24 (7.9) 7 (21.2)  
PCSK9, n (%) 5 (0.9) 2 (0.7) 1 (3.0)  
Double/Compound heterozygote, n (%) 31 (9.2) 29 (9.5) 2 (6.1)  
  1. Data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation, median (interquartile range) or n (%)
  2. FH familial hypercholesterolemia, BMI body mass index, CAD coronary artery disease, TG triglyceride, TC total cholesterol, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, ApoA apolipoprotein A, ApoB apolipoprotein B, Lp(a) lipoprotein(a), hsCRP high sensitivity C-reactive protein, FPG fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c glycosylated hemoglobin, WBC white blood cell, LYM lymphocyte, PCSK9 proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9, LDLR low-density lipoprotein cholesterol receptor