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Table 1 Clinical and laboratory characteristics of FH patients with or without an incident cardiovascular event

From: Circulating PCSK9 and cardiovascular events in FH patients with standard lipid-lowering therapy

VariablesOverall
(N = 338)
Without events (N = 305)With events
(N = 33)
p-value
Clinical factors
Age, years49.38 ± 11.3549.34 ± 11.3249.67 ± 11.810.877
Male, n (%)198 (58.6)178 (58.4)20 (60.6)0.894
BMI, kg/(m2)25.49 ± 3.4125.42 ± 3.3826.11 ± 3.660.282
Normal weight, n (%)155 (45.9)143 (46.9)12 (36.4) 
Overweight, n (%)134 (39.6)119 (39.0)15 (45.5) 
Obesity, n (%)49 (14.5)43 (14.1)6 (18.2) 
Prior CAD, n (%)189 (55.9)166 (54.4)23 (69.7)0.093
Family history of CAD, n (%)157 (46.4)145 (47.5)12 (36.4)0.221
Currently smoking, n (%)141 (41.7)126 (41.3)15 (45.5)0.657
Alcohol drinker, n (%)67 (19.8)61 (20.0)6 (18.2)0.173
Hypertension, n (%)146 (43.2)125 (41.0)21 (63.6)0.012
Diabetes, n (%)61 (18.0)55 (18.0)6 (18.2)0.971
Baseline statin use, n (%)263 (77.8)234 (76.7)29 (87.9)0.143
Tendon xanthoma, n (%)26 (7.7)24 (7.9)2 (6.1)0.711
Definite FH, n (%)222 (65.7)199 (65.2)23 (69.7)0.609
Laboratory factors
TG, mmol/L1.63 (1.21–2.14)1.61 (1.18–2.11)1.84 (1.40–2.46)0.210
TC, mmol/L7.00 ± 2.076.98 ± 2.037.24 ± 2.410.488
HDL-C, mmol/L1.11 ± 0.321.12 ± 0.321.02 ± 0.330.110
LDL-C, mmol/L5.20 ± 1.785.19 ± 1.795.23 ± 1.750.901
ApoA, g/L1.31 ± 0.311.32 ± 0.311.28 ± 0.370.502
ApoB, g/L1.45 ± 0.451.44 ± 0.451.56 ± 0.470.141
Lp(a), mg/dL34.95
(14.35–67.11)
32.29
(13.37–66.19)
55.09
(26.96–77.82)
0.025
HsCRP, mg/L1.52 (0.71–3.20)1.40 (0.69–3.06)2.34 (0.88–4.67)0.095
FPG, mmol/L5.54 ± 1.505.48 ± 1.446.02 ± 1.870.115
HbA1C,  %6.12 ± 1.056.10 ± 1.026.28 ± 1.270.364
WBC, ng/mL6.34 ± 1.786.31 ± 1.816.54 ± 1.520.475
LYM, ng/mL2.06 ± 0.662.07 ± 0.681.92 ± 0.500.226
PCSK9, ng/mL322.18
(249.97–396.24)
311.89
(246.73–386.61)
332.47
(294.74–448.96)
0.038
FH mutations191 (56.5)172 (57.0)19 (56.4)0.896
LDLR, n (%)126 (37.3)116 (38.0)10 (30.3) 
APOB, n (%)31 (9.2)24 (7.9)7 (21.2) 
PCSK9, n (%)5 (0.9)2 (0.7)1 (3.0) 
Double/Compound heterozygote, n (%)31 (9.2)29 (9.5)2 (6.1) 
  1. Data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation, median (interquartile range) or n (%)
  2. FH familial hypercholesterolemia, BMI body mass index, CAD coronary artery disease, TG triglyceride, TC total cholesterol, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, ApoA apolipoprotein A, ApoB apolipoprotein B, Lp(a) lipoprotein(a), hsCRP high sensitivity C-reactive protein, FPG fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c glycosylated hemoglobin, WBC white blood cell, LYM lymphocyte, PCSK9 proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9, LDLR low-density lipoprotein cholesterol receptor