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Table 1 Demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics of the study population

From: Decreased plasma phospholipid concentrations and increased acid sphingomyelinase activity are accurate biomarkers for community-acquired pneumonia

 CAP (n = 29)Infection-associated COPD exacerbation (n = 13)Controls (n = 33)p value
All groupsaCAP vs. COPDb
Demographics
 Sex 
  Female (%)3846360.300.25
  Male (%)625464
  Median age (range)60 (24–90)62 (55–81)59 (24–90)0.780.31
Medical history (past or current) 
 Diabetes (%)3817242.0 × 10−039.0 × 10−04
 Cardiovascular disease (%)2850241.6 × 10−041.4 × 10−03
 Cancer (%)10306< 1.0 × 10−054.1 × 10−04
Treatment (at time of first blood sample)
 Antimicrobial (%)1001000NANA
 Corticosteroid (%)22623.3< 1.0 × 10−05< 1.0 × 10−05
Disease severity
 PSI risk class (%) 
  I (low)21NANANANA
  II (low)20NANANANA
  III (low)14NANANANA
  IV (moderate)24NANANANA
  V (high)21NANANANA
 GOLD grades (%)
  I (mild)NA0NANANA
  II (moderate)NA25NANANA
  III (severe)NA25NANANA
  IV (very severe)NA50NANANA
Laboratory results
 CRP (mg/l, ref. < 5 mg/l)102 (3.1–428)14 (3.1–91)3.1 (3.1–7.1)2.5 × 10−122.5 × 10−05
 PCT (ng/l, ref. < 0.5 ng/l)0.23 (0.02–38)0.09 (0.02–1.0)0.02 (0.02–0.08)5.0 × 10−097.1 × 10−03
 Pathogen detected (%)4154NANANA
  1. CRP C-reactive protein, GOLD Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, NA not applicable, PCT procalcitonin, PSI Pneumonia Severity Index
  2. aKruskall–Wallis test
  3. bMann–Whitney U test (continuous variables), Chi2 test (categorical variables)