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Table 3 Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis of BCa patients based on clinicopathological characteristics derived from NCDB data in the training cohort

From: Prognostic nomogram for bladder cancer with brain metastases: a National Cancer Database analysis

CharacteristicsUnivariate analysis HR (95% CI)P valueMultivariate analysis HR (95% CI)P value
Age (< 65 years vs. ≥ 65 years)1.117 (0.819–1.525)0.481.032 (0.705–1.511)0.87
Sex (male vs. female)0.861 (0.602–1.233)0.421.166 (0.756–1.797)0.49
Race
 White vs. black0.871 (0.509–1.489)0.610.956 (0.523–1.747)0.88
 White vs. others0.889 (0.363–2.174)0.800.524 (0.197–1.39)0.19
Grade
 Well differentiated vs. poorly differentiated0.896 (0.511–1.574)0.701.317 (0.653–2.656)0.44
 Well differentiated vs. unknown1.144 (0.636–2.057)0.651.634 (0.753–3.546)0.21
Histology
 TCC vs. PUC0.851 (0.588–1.232)0.391.181 (0.738–1.89)0.49
 TCC vs. SCC1.083 (0.563–2.087)0.811.495 (0.714–3.13)0.29
 TCC vs. others0.916 (0.578–1.45)0.710.629 (0.363–1.09)0.10
Lymph_nodes
 No vs. yes0.835 (0.564–1.234)0.370.808 (0.51–1.28)0.36
 No vs. unknown0.985 (0.682–1.422)0.930.761 (0.485–1.196)0.24
Lymph_Vas_Invasion
 No vs. yes1.098 (0.658–1.832)0.721.494 (0.816–2.736)0.19
 No vs. unknown1.291 (0.859–1.94)0.221.269 (0.764–2.107)0.36
Tumor_Stage (low vs. high)1.247 (0.704–2.21)0.451.089 (0.536–2.211)0.81
Met_Bone (no vs. yes)1.026 (0.742–1.42)0.880.61 (0.374–0.997)0.05
Met_Liver (no vs. yes)0.978 (0.683–1.4)0.901.223 (0.761–1.966)0.41
Met_Lung (no vs. yes)1.317 (0.962–1.802)0.090.878 (0.525–1.469)0.62
Surgery primary
 Minimal invasive surgery vs. no surgery1.44 (1.031–2.011)0.032.529 (1.609–3.975)< 0.001
 Minimal invasive surgery vs. non-minimal invasive0.923 (0.558–1.525)0.751.253 (0.672–2.334)0.48
Chemotherapy (no vs. yes)0.353 (0.25–0.498)< 0.0010.213 (0.137–0.332)< 0.001
Radiation_Therapy (no vs. yes)0.723 (0.53–0.986)0.040.708 (0.486–1.031)0.07
Palliative_Care (no vs. yes)0.922 (0.651–1.305)0.650.631 (0.413–0.964)0.03
Brain_Confined_Met (non–brain confined vs. brain confined)1.248 (0.911–1.71)0.172.229 (1.144–4.345)0.02
CDCC_Score
 0 vs. 11.29 (0.886–1.878)0.181.439 (0.929–2.23)0.10
 0 vs. 21.529 (0.798–2.926)0.201.865 (0.861–4.038)0.11
 0 vs. 32.14 (0.932–4.91)0.072.545 (1.035–6.256)0.04
Surgery_Met (yes vs. no)0.9 (0.58–1.396)0.640.918 (0.546–1.542)0.75