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Table 2 Baseline characteristics and distribution of risk stratification of patients in the training and validation cohorts

From: Prognostic nomogram for bladder cancer with brain metastases: a National Cancer Database analysis

CharacteristicsTraining set (%)Internal testing set (%)
Number of casesHigh riskLow riskNumber of casesHigh riskLow risk
Age
 < 65 years71 (42)32 (18.9)39 (23.1)22 (33.8)11 (16.9)11 (16.9)
 ≥ 65 years98 (58)49 (29)49 (29)43 (66.2)21 (32.3)22 (33.8)
Sex
 Male128 (75.7)63 (37.3)65 (38.5)47 (72.3)19 (29.2)28 (43.1)
 Female41 (24.3)18 (10.7)23 (13.6)18 (27.7)13 (20)5 (7.7)
Race
 White148 (87.6)70 (41.4)78 (46.2)59 (90.8)29 (44.6)30 (46.2)
 Black16 (9.5)8 (4.7)8 (4.7)4 (6.2)3 (4.6)1 (1.5)
 Others5 (3)3 (1.8)2 (1.2)2 (3.1)0 (0)2 (3.1)
Grade
 Well differentiated14 (8.3)10 (5.9)4 (2.4)1 (1.5)0 (0)1 (1.5)
 Poorly differentiated96 (56.8)39 (23.1)57 (33.7)39 (60)19 (29.2)20 (30.8)
 Unknown59 (34.9)32 (18.9)27 (16)25 (38.5)13 (20)12 (18.5)
Histology
 TCC94 (55.6)49 (29)45 (26.6)38 (58.5)17 (26.2)21 (32.3)
 PUC42 (24.9)15 (8.9)27 (16)8 (12.3)5 (7.7)3 (4.6)
 SCC10 (5.9)3 (1.8)7 (4.1)7 (10.8)2 (3.1)5 (7.7)
 Others23 (13.6)14 (8.3)9 (5.3)12 (18.5)8 (12.3)4 (6.2)
Tumor_Stage
 Low13 (7.7)7 (4.1)6 (3.6)4 (6.2)2 (3.1)2 (3.1)
 High156 (92.3)74 (43.8)82 (48.5)61 (93.8)30 (46.2)31 (47.7)
Lymph_nodes
 No87 (51.5)39 (23.1)48 (28.4)33 (50.8)16 (24.6)17 (26.2)
 Yes36 (21.3)14 (8.3)22 (13)17 (26.2)9 (13.8)8 (12.3)
 Unknown46 (27.2)28 (16.6)18 (10.7)15 (23.1)7 (10.8)8 (12.3)
Lymph_Vas_Invasion
 No31 (18.3)12 (7.1)19 (11.2)12 (18.5)5 (7.7)7 (10.8)
 Yes29 (17.2)13 (7.7)16 (9.5)6 (9.2)3 (4.6)3 (4.6)
 Unknown109 (64.5)56 (33.1)53 (31.4)47 (72.3)24 (36.9)23 (35.4)
Met_Bone
 No112 (66.3)47 (27.8)65 (38.5)44 (67.7)26 (40)18 (27.7)
 Yes57 (33.7)34 (20.1)23 (13.6)21 (32.3)6 (9.2)15 (23.1)
Met_Liver
 No129 (76.3)61 (36.1)68 (40.2)50 (76.9)25 (38.5)25 (38.5)
 Yes40 (23.7)20 (11.8)20 (11.8)15 (23.1)7 (10.8)8 (12.3)
Met_Lung
 No100 (59.2)40 (23.7)60 (35.5)34 (52.3)16 (24.6)18 (27.7)
 Yes69 (40.8)41 (24.3)28 (16.6)31 (47.7)16 (24.6)15 (23.1)
Surgery_Primary
 Minimal invasive65 (38.5)27 (16)38 (22.5)31 (47.7)19 (29.2)12 (18.5)
 No83 (49.1)48 (28.4)35 (20.7)29 (44.6)9 (13.8)20 (30.8)
 Non-minimal invasive21 (12.4)6 (3.6)15 (8.9)5 (7.7)4 (6.2)1 (1.5)
Chemotherapy
 No97 (57.4)77 (45.6)20 (11.8)36 (55.4)28 (43.1)8 (12.3)
 Yes72 (42.6)4 (2.4)68 (40.2)29 (44.6)4 (6.2)25 (38.5)
Radiation_Therapy
 No89 (52.7)50 (29.6)39 (23.1)38 (58.5)14 (21.5)24 (36.9)
 Yes80 (47.3)31 (18.3)49 (29)27 (41.5)18 (27.7)9 (13.8)
Palliative_Care
 No122 (72.2)62 (36.7)60 (35.5)47 (72.3)21 (32.3)26 (40)
 Yes47 (27.8)19 (11.2)28 (16.6)18 (27.7)11 (16.9)7 (10.8)
Brain_Confined_Met
 No67 (39.6)24 (14.2)43 (25.4)22 (33.8)13 (20)9 (13.8)
 Yes102 (60.4)57 (33.7)45 (26.6)43 (66.2)19 (29.2)24 (36.9)
CDCC_Score
 0116 (68.6)50 (29.6)66 (39.1)46 (70.8)23 (35.4)23 (35.4)
 137 (21.9)19 (11.2)18 (10.7)12 (18.5)8 (12.3)4 (6.2)
 210 (5.9)7 (4.1)3 (1.8)5 (7.7)1 (1.5)4 (6.2)
 36 (3.6)5 (3)1 (0.6)2 (3.1)0 (0)2 (3.1)
Surgery_Met
 No144 (85.2)72 (42.6)72 (42.6)55 (84.6)25 (38.5)30 (46.2)
 Yes25 (14.8)9 (5.3)16 (9.5)10 (15.4)7 (10.8)3 (4.6)
  1. TCC transitional cell carcinoma, PUC papillary urothelial carcinoma, SCC small cell carcinoma