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Table 2 Metabolites differentiating OIS from OIR + T2DM

From: Metabolic signature of obesity-associated insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes

Metabolites Sub pathway Super pathway Fold change Std. error p value
1,5-Anhydroglucitol (1,5-Ag) Glycolysis gluconeogenesis and pyruvate metabolism Carbohydrate − 0.92 0.4 0.041
12-Dilinoleoyl-Gpc (18:2/18:2) Phosphatidylcholine (PC) Lipid 0.47 0.2 0.037
12-Dilinoleoyl-Gpe (18:2/18:2)* Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) Lipid 1.23 0.51 0.037
1-Methylhistamine Histidine metabolism Amino Acid 1.16 0.38 0.007
1-Ribosyl-Imidazoleacetate* Histidine metabolism Amino Acid 0.85 0.35 0.03
26-Dihydroxybenzoic Acid Drug—topical agents Xenobiotics 1.18 0.42 0.011
3-Amino-2-Piperidone Urea cycle; arginine and Proline metabolism Amino Acid − 0.99 0.37 0.016
5-Methylthioadenosine Polyamine metabolism Amino Acid 1.18 0.38 0.006
Alpha-hydroxyisovalerate Leucine isoleucine and valine metabolism Amino Acid 0.7 0.27 0.023
Arachidonoylcholine Fatty acid metabolism (acyl choline) Lipid − 1.05 0.41 0.021
Choline Phospholipid metabolism Lipid − 0.46 0.17 0.013
Cortisol Corticosteroids Lipid 0.87 0.31 0.012
Docosatrienoate (22:3N3) Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n3 and n6) Lipid 0.64 0.25 0.024
Formiminoglutamate Histidine metabolism Amino Acid 1.15 0.52 0.05
Gamma-tocopherol/beta-tocopherol Tocopherol metabolism Cofactors and Vitamins 1.38 0.55 0.024
Glucose Glycolysis gluconeogenesis and pyruvate metabolism Carbohydrate 0.3 0.12 0.025
Glycerol 3-phosphate Glycerolipid metabolism Lipid − 0.93 0.38 0.029
Glycerophosphoethanolamine Phospholipid metabolism Lipid − 1.24 0.47 0.019
Glycerophosphorylcholine (GPC) Phospholipid metabolism Lipid − 1.85 0.77 0.032
HWESASXX* Tyrosine metabolism Amino Acid − 1.44 0.59 0.029
Methionine sulfone Drug—metabolic Xenobiotics 0.89 0.34 0.018
Methylphosphate Benzoate Metabolism Xenobiotics − 1.55 0.48 0.006
N-Formylanthranilic Acid Fatty acid metabolism (acyl carnitine monounsaturated) Lipid 0.9 0.4 0.044
N-Stearoyl-Sphinganine (D18:0/18:0)* Endocannabinoid Lipid 0.84 0.31 0.015
N-Stearoyl-Sphingosine (D18:1/18:0)* Ceramides Lipid 0.44 0.2 0.05
Pipecolate Fatty acid dicarboxylate Lipid 0.92 0.32 0.011
Ribitol Vitamin A metabolism Cofactors and vitamins 0.33 0.14 0.044
  1. Italicized rows represent metabolites that belong to the significantly enriched phospholipids pathway. Linear regression was performed to identify significant metabolites differentiating OIS from OIR and T2DM using the R statistical package after correcting for age, gender, BMI and principle components (PC1 and PC2). A p-value significance level of 0.05 was used. Asterisks (*) on IDs of some metabolites indicate that they have not been officially confirmed based on a standard, but their identities are known with confidence [23]