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Table 1 General characteristics of participants

From: Metabolic signature of obesity-associated insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes

Variables Lean OIS OIR T2DM p value All IR (OIR + T2DM) p value
(N = 32) (all F) (N = 20) (4M + 16F) (N = 41) (15M + 26F) (N = 14) (9M + 5F) ANOVA (N = 55) OIS vs (OIR + T2DM)
Age (years) 28 (6.8) 35.4 (10.0) 33.17 (10.1) 43 (10.9) < 0.001 35.7 (1.49) 0.92
BMI (kg/m2) 22.7 (2.5) 45.7 (6.038) 45.2 (6.8) 43.3 (7.2) < 0.001 44.8 (0.93) 0.55
SBP (mmHg) 115.3 (13.7) 124.9 (15) 126.9 (19.2) 132.3 (8.3) 0.004 128 (2.32) 0.42
DBP (mmHg) 70.7 (7.8) 74.2 (23.257) 74.0 (11.8) 77.1 (8.8) 0.52 74.8 (1.51) 0.88
MAP (mmHg) 85.6 (8.7) 85.2 (12.82) 91.7 (12.8) 95.8 (8.21) 0.01 92.7 (1.61) 0.03
Cholesterol (mmol/l) 4.3 (0.97) 4.5 (1.24) 4.8 (1.2) 4.9 (0.70) 0.27 4.8 (0.14) 0.24
LDL-cholesterol (mmol/l) 2.5 (0.96) 2.9 (0.89) 3.0 (1.05) 2.8 (0.66) 0.32 3.0 (0.13) 0.74
HDL-cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.4 (0.35) 1.2 (0.36) 1.4 (0.59) 1.2 (0.2) 0.18 1.4 (0.07) 0.12
Triacylglycerol (mmol/l) 0.8 (0.28) 1.1 (0.39) 1.3 (0.62) 1.8 (0.8) < 0.001 1.4 (0.09) 0.04
Triglyceride/HDL 0.7 (0.56) 1.0 (0.45) 1.1 (0.77) 1.6 (1.1) 0.01 1.2 (0.12) 0.28
Leptin (ng/ml) NA 60.2 (29.9) 51.2 (21.8) 38.9 (23.8) 0.05* 48.0 (3.09) 0.06
Adiponectin (μg/ml) NA 4.2 (3.19) 3.1 (1.41) 3.4 (1.7) 0.5* 3.1 (0.30) 0.25
IL6 (pg/ml) NA 3.7 (2.07) 4.3 (2.1) 4.0 (2.0) 0.45* 4.2 (0.27) 0.26
Insulin (pmol/l) NA 5.3 (1.04) 6.3 (2.7) 11.3 (5.6) < 0.001* 7.6 (0.57) 0.02
FBG (mmol/l) 5.0 (0.39) 6.3 (2.30) 17.9 (8.8) 15.1 (8.6) < 0.001 17.2 (1.18) < 0.001
HOMA-IR NA 1.5 (0.55) 5.22 (3.2) 6.4 (3.0) < 0.001* 5.5 (0.43) < 0.001
TP (g/l) 73.7 (3.40) 70.3 (4.36) 71 (4.4) 74.3 (7.2) 0.04 71.8 (0.89) 0.34
ALP (U/l) 60.3 (17.1) 70.2 (18.38) 72.5 (16.1) 95.5 (38.1) < 0.001 77.9 (3.46) 0.21
ALT (U/l) 12.6 (5.5) 22.9 (15.16) 31.3 (25.6) 30.9 (19.0) 0.002 31.2 (3.33) 0.15
AST (U/l) 15.5 (4.7) 20.8 (7.84) 24.9 (16.7) 21.7 (10.7) 0.04 24.1 (2.17) 0.36
Bilirubin (μmol/l) 21.2 (4.6) 8.30 (3.84) 8.2 (4.4) 8.5 (3.5) 0.55 8.0 (0.60) 0.9
  1. BMI body mass index, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, MAP mean arterial blood pressure, LDL low density lipoprotein, HDL high density lipoprotein, IL-6 interleukin 6, FBG fasting blood glucose, HOMA-IR homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, TP total protein, ALP alkaline phosphatase, ALT alanine transaminase, AST aspartate aminotransferase, F female, M male. Data are presented as mean (SD). Differences between OIS, OIR and T2DM were tested by ANOVA. Differences between (OIS and OIR) and (OIS vs OIR + T2DM) were tested by independent sample t test (normally distributed variables) or Mann–Whitney U (variables with skewed distribution) test. A p-value significance level of 0.05 was used. The asterisk (*) denotes ANOVA that compared OIS, OIR and T2DM due to lack of data from the lean group