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Table 1 Etiology of liver disease and composition of the different groups

From: Selective improvement by rifaximin of changes in the immunophenotype in patients who improve minimal hepatic encephalopathy

Parameters Controls (n=30) Patients without MHE (n=30) Patients with MHE (n=22) Patients with MHE (n=22)
“Responder” patients (n=13) “Non-responder” patients (n=9)
Before rifaximin After rifaximin treatment Before rifaximin After rifaximin treatment
Gender (M/F) 19/11 24/6 19/3 11/2   8/1  
Age 59 ± 1 61 ± 1 63 ± 2 60 ± 2   63 ± 2  
Alcohol   19 12 7   5  
HBV/HCV   9 5 4   1  
Others   2 5 2   3  
Ascites   2 6 2 2 1 1
Child Pugh A/B/C   26A/4B 13A/6B/3C 9A/4B 8A/5B 6A/2B/1C 5A/3B/1C
MELD   10 ± 1 11 ± 1 10 ± 1 10 ± 1 11 ± 2 12 ± 2
Haemoglobin (g/dL) 14.6 ± 0.2 13.7 ± 0.5 13.1 ± 0.4 13 ± 0.6* 13 ± 0.7* 13.7 ± 0.4 13.4 ± 0.7
Total bilirubin (mg/dL) 0.5 ± 0.03 1.3 ± 0.2** 1.2 ± 0.2* 1.1 ± 0.2* 1.2 ± 0.1* 1.3 ± 0.4* 1.5 ± 0.5*
Albumin (g/dL) 4.5 ± 0.1 3.8 ± 0.2** 3.7 ± 0.1*** 3.7 ± 0.2** 3.8 ± 0.2** 3.7 ± 0.2** 3.6 ± 0.4**
ALT (U/L) 23 ± 2 36 ± 3* 33 ± 3 32 ± 4 27 ± 4 29 ± 3 34 ± 3
Sodium (mM) 138 ± 0.3 139 ± 0.7 137 ± 2 136 ± 1 139 ± 1aa 138 ± 3 136 ± 3a
Creatinin (mg/dL) 0.77 ± 0.02 0.78 ± 0.03 0.88 ± 0.05 0.84 ± 0.06 0.81 ± 0.07 0.95 ± 0.11* 0.89 ± 0.15
INR 1.05 ± 0.01 1.34 ± 0.05*** 1.22 ± 0.05* 1.19 ± 0.04*** 1.28 ± 0.08*** 1.24 ± 0.1** 1.21 ± 0.07***
Ammonia (μM) 9 ± 1 27 ± 4* 41 ± 8*** 38 ± 11** 34 ± 7* 46 ± 12*** 48 ± 13***
  1. Analytical parameters before and after rifaximin treatment in “responder” and “non-responder” patients
  2. Values are expressed as the mean ± SEM
  3. MHE minimal hepatic encephalopathy, HBV hepatitis B virus, HCV hepatitis C virus, MELD model end stage liver disease
  4. Differences between controls and patients were analyzed by one-way ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey’s multiple comparison test. Differences between before and after Rifaximin treatment were analyzed using a Paired t-test. Values significantly different from controls are indicated by *. Values significantly different after vs. before treatment are indicated by a (*/a p < 0.05; **/aa p < 0.01)