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Table 2 Summary of the main findings from the meta-analysis

From: Clinicohistopathological implications of MMP/VEGF expression in retinoblastoma: a combined meta-analysis and bioinformatics analysis

Outcome-molecular No. of patients/studies Random-effects model Quality-effects modela Fixed-effects modelb
OR(s) or r (95% CI) Test for overall effects (P) Overall heterogeneity (I2), % OR(s) or r (95% CI) Overall Heterogeneity (I2), % OR(s) or r (95% CI) Test for overall effects (P) Overall heterogeneity (I2), %
Tumor invasion   OR    OR   OR   
 MMP-1 113/3 4.21 (1.86–9.54) 0.0006 0 4.14 (1.83–9.39) 0 4.21 (1.87.9/47) 0.0005 0
 MMP-2 140/3 11.18 (4.26–29.30) < 0.00001 0 11.24 (4.29–29.50) 0 11.46 (4.41–29.79) < 0.00001 0
 MMP-9 431/10 10.41 (4.26–25.47) < 0.00001 59 6.37 (2.48–16.35) 57
 VEGF 409/10 8.09 (4.03–16.20) < 0.00001 0 8.08 (4.03–16.19) 0 9.93 (5.11–19.30) < 0.00001 0
Tumor differentiation   OR    OR   OR   
 MMP-1 113/3 3.58 (1.48–8.71) 0.005 13 3.42 (1.40–8.33) 13 3.55 (1.60–7.89) 0.002 13
 MMP-2 140/3 2.96 (1.32–6.64) 0.009 13 3.03 (1.35–6.81) 13 3.01 (1.45–6.25) 0.003 13
 MMP-9 474/10 5.49 (3.55–8.48) < 0.00001 0 6.37 (2.48–16.35) 57 5.77 (3.77–8.83) < 0.00001 0
 VEGF 510/11 5.30 (2.93–9.60) < 0.00001 38 4.93 (2.71–8.96) 0 5.04 (3.23–7.87) < 0.00001 38
Clinical stage   OR    OR   OR   
 MMP-9 227/4 5.17 (2.85–9.38) < 0.00001 0 5.22 (2.88–9.48) 0 5.19 (2.87–9.39) < 0.00001 0
Gender   OR    OR   OR   
 MMP-9 152/3 0.60 (0.26–1.34) 0.21 32 0.60 (0.27–1.36) 32 0.60 (0.31–1.15) 0.12 32
Coexpressiona   r    r     
 MMP-9 and VEGF 287/5 0.61 (0.38–0.77) 84 0.59 (0.34–0.77) 84
  1. No number, OR odds ratio, r summary correlation coefficients, CI confidence intervals
  2. aThese results are calculated using statistical add-in software MetaXL, in which the p value of testing for overall effects is not provided
  3. bThe fixed-effects model is applied only when I2 ≤ 50%