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Table 4 Risk factors for lymph node metastasis and liver metastasis identified by univariate logistic regression analysis

From: Novel nomograms to predict lymph node metastasis and liver metastasis in patients with early colon carcinoma

Clinicopathological variables Lymph node metastasis Liver metastasis
OR 95% CI P value OR 95% CI P value
Age
 <45 1    1   
 45–65 0.86 0.729–1.016 0.76 0.774 0.5–1.2 0.253
 ≥ 65 0.609 0.517–0.717   0.528 0.342–0.814 0.004
Gender
 Female 1    1   
 Male 1.02 0.946–1.101 0.606 1.222 0.98–1.524 0.075
Marital status
 Married 1    1   
 Single 0.917 0.847–0.993 0.033 1.194 0.951–1.499 0.128
 Unknown 0.758 0.638–0.901 0.002 1.065 0.667–1.7 0.791
Race
 Asian or Pacific Islander 1    1   
 American Indian/Alaska Native 0.792 0.495–1.265 0.328 1.344 0.306–5.899 0.695
 White 0.735 0.642–0.841   1.469 0.884–2.442 0.138
 Black 1.015 0.863–1.193 0.858 2.278 1.305–3.976 0.004
Histological grade
 Well differentiated 1    1   
 Moderately differentiated 1.667 1.493–1.883 < 0.001 1.891 1.318–2.713 < 0.001
 Poorly differentiated 3.739 3.217–4.345 < 0.001 2.891 1.829–4.571 < 0.001
 Undifferentiated 3.617 2.763–4.735 < 0.001 3.043 1.396–6.626 0.005
Histological type
 Adenocarcinoma 1    1   
 Carcinoid tumor 0.862 0.679–1.094 0.222 0.306 0.098–0.957 0.042
 Neuroendocrine carcinoma 2.14 1.547–2.96 < 0.001 1.376 0.508–3.371 0.53
 Mucinous adenocarcinoma 1.231 1.043–1.453 0.014 1.303 0.833–2.308 0.247
 Other 1.124 0.946–1.336 0.183 0.629 0.334–1.185 0.151
T classification
 T1 1    1   
 T2 2.461 2.271–2.665 < 0.001 1.789 1.426–2.244 < 0.001
Tumor size
 <5 cm 1    1   
 ≥ 5 cm 1.494 1.34–1.666 < 0.001 4.212 3.269–5.425 < 0.001
 Unknown 0.58 0.509–0.66 < 0.001 1.894 1.406–2.553 < 0.001
CEA
 Negative 1    1   
 Borderline 1.338 0.688–2.601 0.391 2.815 0.382–20.726 0.31
 Positive 1.477 1.316–1.658 < 0.001 12.309 9.035–16.77 < 0.001
 Unknown 0.669 0.616–0.727   1.249 0.893–1.746 0.194
Tumor number
 1 1    1   
 2 0.915 0.834–1.004 0.061 1.222 0.947–1.573 0.123
 3 0.863 0.727–1.024 0.091 1.134 0.714–1.8 0.593
 >3 0.933 0.703–1.238 0.631 0.859 0.352–2.096 0.738
N classification
 N0 1    1   
 N1 NA NA NA 4.687 3.64–6.036 < 0.001
 N2 NA NA NA 17.35 12.761–23.59 < 0.001
  1. Italic values: differences are statistically significant. OR: odds ratio; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval; CEA, carcinoembryonic antigen; NA, not available