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Table 3 Correlations between clinicopathological characteristics of patients and liver metastasis in the training and validation sets

From: Novel nomograms to predict lymph node metastasis and liver metastasis in patients with early colon carcinoma

Clinicopathological variables Training set Validation set
Negative Positive P value Negative Positive P value
Age 67.07 (13.38) 63.70 (12.88) 0.494 67.24 (13.42) 62.78 (13.15) 0.481
Gender
 Female 10,821 146 0.084 5464 48 0.001
 Male 10,736 177   5343 84  
Marriage
 Married 11,881 165 0.311 5970 77 0.461
 Single 8324 138   4156 50  
 Unknown 1352 20   681 5  
Race
 American Indian/Alaska Native 152 2 0.006 67 2 0.063
 Asian or Pacific Islander 1634 16   803 14  
 Black 2600 58   1276 22  
 White 17,171 247   8661 94  
Histological grade
 Well differentiated 4124 34 < 0.001 2043 13 < 0.001
 Moderately differentiated 15,394 240   7795 100  
 Poorly differentiated 1720 41   841 13  
 Undifferentiated 319 8   128 6  
Histological type
 Adenocarcinoma 18,632 285 0.067 9327 112 0.154
 Carcinoid tumor 641 3   341 1  
 Neuroendocrine carcinoma 190 4   94 3  
 Mucinous adenocarcinoma 1054 21   501 9  
 Other 1040 10   544 7  
T classification
 T1 11,222 122 < 0.001 5631 42 < 0.001
 T2 10,335 201   5176 90  
Tumor size
 <5 cm 16,310 164 < 0.001 8120 74 < 0.001
 ≥ 5 cm 2312 99   1118 36  
 Unknown 3115 60   1569 22  
CEA
 Negative 8057 54 < 0.001 4019 26 < 0.001
 Borderline 53 1   25 1  
 Positive 2097 173   1057 58  
 Unknown 11,350 95   5706 47  
Tumor number
 1 15,001 213 0.441 7482 93 0.687
 2 4904 85   2474 32  
 3 1242 20   646 6  
 > 3 410 5   205 1  
Overall survival
 Alive 18,646 151 < 0.001 9342 67 < 0.001
 Dead 2911 172   1465 65  
  1. Italic values: differences are statistically significant
  2. CEA, carcinoembryonic antigen