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Table 3 Baseline clinical characteristics of enrolled CKD patients

From: Compound α-keto acid tablet supplementation alleviates chronic kidney disease progression via inhibition of the NF-kB and MAPK pathways

Renal function CKD (3 to 5 stages) CKD (4 and 5 stages) CKD (3 stage)
No-KA (n = 175) KA (n = 148) p value* No-KA (n = 52) KA (n = 70) p value* No-KA (n = 123) KA (n = 78) p value*
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)
Baseline 38.7 ± 14.1 30.7 ± 13.1 0.000 20.7 ± 6.2 19.1 ± 6.8 0.187 46.4 ± 8.4 41.1 ± 7.4 0.000
End-point 43.3 ± 20.7 31.4 ± 17.5 0.000 21.8 ± 11.5 19.4 ± 13.0 0.295 52.4 ± 16.5 42.1 ± 13.5 0.000
Scr (μmol/L)
Baseline 187.0 ± 98.1 226.4 ± 107.7 0.001 296.7 ± 116.2 305.5 ± 108.4 0.669 140.6 ± 28.2 155.3 ± 28.4 0.000
End-point 186.3 ± 116.2 246.1 ± 136.8 0.000 298.1 ± 130.2 337.6 ± 140.2 0.115 139.0 ± 67.8 163.9 ± 60.1 0.009
BUN (mmol/L)
Baseline 10.2 ± 5.2 11.9 ± 5.6 0.008 15.4 ± 6.2 15.6 ± 5.6 0.854 8.0 ± 2.5 8.5 ± 2.7 0.233
End-point 10.1 ± 5.4 13.8 ± 8.0 0.000 14.7 ± 5.8 19.0 ± 8.3 0.002 8.1 ± 3.7 9.2 ± 3.9 0.053
UA (μmol/L)
Baseline 412.7 ± 113.4 425.3 ± 100.1 0.293 437.6 ± 114.9 422.2 ± 112.6 0.462 402.1 ± 111.5 428.1 ± 88.0 0.068
End-point 383.8 ± 89.1 373.8 ± 83.8 0.307 399.8 ± 105.0 357.3 ± 94.2 0.023 377.0 ± 81.0 388.9 ± 70.3 0.289
\( HCO_{3}^{ - } \) (mmol/L)
Baseline 22.5 ± 3.3 22.3 ± 3.1 0.546 20.7 ± 3.0 21.0 ± 2.9 0.493 23.2 ± 3.1 23.4 ± 2.8 0.762
End-point 24.1 ± 2.7 22.9 ± 2.7 0.000 22.8 ± 2.5 21.8 ± 2.2 0.018 24.6 ± 2.6 23.9 ± 2.6 0.054
  1. Italic values indicate significance of p value (p < 0.05)
  2. * Presented as comparison of the No-KA group with the KA group (t-test)