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Table 1 Overview of the main studies that investigate the relation between vitamin D metabolites and IGF-1 in children

From: Vitamin D and growth hormone in children: a review of the current scientific knowledge

Reference Study area, study design Number of patients Vitamin D metabolite considered Correlation between vitamin D and IGF-1 Other remarks Limits
Mortensen [66] Denmark, RCT 117 subjects (mean age 6.6 ± 1.5 years) randomly divided into 3 groups: 40 subjects who received a placebo for 20 weeks; 38 subjects who received a 10 mcg/day vitamin D supplementation for 20 weeks; and 39 subjects who received a 20 mcg/day vitamin D supplementation for 20 weeks 25(OH)D No correlation between 25(OH)D and IGF-1 or IGFBP-3 levels at baseline
Positive correlation between 25(OH)D, IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 in group that received 20 mcg/day vitamin D supplementation for 20 weeks
Positive relationship between 25(OH)D and IGFPB-3 at baseline only in girls
Positive relationship between 25(OH)D and IGFPB-3 in group that received 10 mcg/day vitamin D supplementation for 20 weeks
Increased height in group that received 20 mcg/day vitamin D supplementation for 20 weeks compared to placebo group
 
Marwaha [67] India, prospective cohort 847 healthy Indian girls (6–18 years old) 25(OH)D No correlation between 25(OH)D and IGF-1 or IGFBP-3 levels at baseline
Increased IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels after 6 months vitamin D supplementation
No effect on PTH Only girls studied
94.6% had 25(OH)D < 20 ng/mL
Gannagé-Yared [68] Lebanon, cross-sectional 952 Lebanon subjects (mean age of 13.46 ± 2.80 years old) 25(OH)D No correlation between 25(OH)D and IGF-1  
Nazif [71] Egypt, cross-sectional 58 subjects affected by CP (4–12 years old) and 19 healthy gender and age-matched controls 25(OH)D Positive correlation between 25(OH)D and IGF-1 25(OH)D and IGF-1 values significantly reduced compared to the healthy population Numerous studies evidenced decreased IGF-1 levels in CP children
Bereket [70] Turkey, prospective cohort 22 subjects affected by nutritional rickets (mean age of 1.3 ± 1.6 years old) 25(OH)D No correlation between 25(OH)D and IGF-1 or IGFBP-3 levels at baseline
Positive correlation between 25(OH)D, IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 3 months after vitamin D megadose treatment
No effect on PTH
No relationship between 25(OH)D and IGFBP-4 at baseline and after treatment
 
Soliman [69] Qatar, prospective cohort 46 subjects affected by nutritional rickets (mean age of 13.1 ± 1.1 months) and 40 healthy controls (mean age of 14.3 ± 2.2 months) 25(OH)D Positive correlation between 25(OH)D and IGF-1 before and after vitamin D megadose treatment Positive effect on the growth velocity SDS  
  1. RCT, randomized controlled trial