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Table 2 Baseline characteristics between healthy individuals (donors) and kidney transplant recipients

From: Dermal tissue remodeling and non-osmotic sodium storage in kidney patients

Variables Healthy individuals donors (N = 12) Renal patients recipients (N = 12)
All Preemptive Dialysis
(N = 12) (N = 7) (N = 5)
Age (years) 61 [53–67] 52 [43–60]* 51 [48–64] 53 [41–60]
Sex (% male) 33 58 57 60
Length (cm) 166 [161–178] 176 [170–183] 176 [170–182] 175 [168–184]
Weight (kg) 81 [73–91] 77 [70–87] 73 [70–82] 84 [73–94]
BMI (kg/m2) 29 [25–31] 24 [22–28] 24 [22–25]* 26 [23–32]
Blood pressure (mmHg)
 Systolic 138 [129–150] 150 [131–158] 151 [122–165] 149 [136–152]
 Diastolic 80 [72–85] 87 [71–95] 88 [69–98] 86 [63–89]
Time on dialysis, months 13 [8–18]
Dialysis (%)
 Hemodialysis 80
 First peritoneal, switched to hemodialysis 20
Underlying disease (%)
 Healthy donor 100 0 0 0
 IgA Nephropathy 0 17 14 20
 Focal Segmental 0 17 14 20
Glomerulo-sclerosis
 ADPKD 0 33 29 40
 Glomerulonephritis 0 25 29 20
 Other 0 8 14 0
Known comorbidities (%)
 Hypertension 8 67 58 80
 Malignancy 8 8 14 0
 Coronary heart disease 8 17 14 20
 Diabetes mellitus 0 8 0 20
 Other 8 17 14 40
 No relevant comorbidities 67 17 29 0
Drug use (%)
 Anti-hypertensives 42 67 86 40
 Diuretics 0 42* 43* 40*
 Anti-diabetics 0 8 0 20
Dermal sodium content (µmol/mg protein) 0.68 [0.45–0.94] (n = 8) 0.89 [0.59–1.01] (n = 11) 0.98 [0.59–1.12] (n = 7) 0.83 [0.45–0.89] (n = 4)
Laboratory characteristics (day of OR)
 eGFR (mL/min) 91 [81–95] 11 [8–14] *** 11 [10–14]*** 8 [6-X]** (n = 3)
 Serum creatinine (umol/L) 68 [63–84] 514 [447–646]*** 462 [442–516]*** 619 [399–1065]**
 Serum albumin (mmol/L) 44 [43–46] 43 [41–46] 43 [42–50] 42 [40–45]
 Plasma sodium (mmol/L) 141 (140–143] 43 [41–46] 139 [138–142] 137 [137–140]**
 Urine creatinine (mmol/L) 6.5 [4.2–11.9] 6.4 [3.8–8.9] 5.4 [3.2–8.2] 8.6 [6.4–13.1]
 Proteinuria (g/L) 0.04 [0.03–0.06] 1.92 [0.26–2.35]** 0.39 [0.26–6.60]** 2.09 [0.54–2.33]**
 Urine sodium (mmol/L) 85 [60–119] 62 [41–68]* 62 [56–68] 44 [22–77]
 Sodium excretion (mmol/24 h) 128 [20–192] 107 [40–140] 116 [54–166] 107 [17–X] (n = 3)
  1. * Significantly different compared to healthy donors (* p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001)