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Table 1 Characteristics of enrolled patients

From: Early and dynamic alterations of Th2/Th1 in previously immunocompetent patients with community-acquired severe sepsis: a prospective observational study

Characteristic Healthy control
n = 7
ICU control
n = 7
Community-acquired severe sepsis
n = 71
Overall 28-Day survivors 28-Day non-survivors p
n = 71 n = 53 (74.6%) n = 18 (25.4%)
Age (years) 57.32 ± 23.27 69.00 ± 19.87 71.72 ± 15.54 71.85 ± 17.21 71.72 ± 10.23 ns
 < 60, n (%) 2 2 15 12 3  
 61–70, n (%) 1 1 9 5 4  
 71–80, n (%) 2 2 23 15 8  
 81–90, n (%) 2 2 23 22 3  
Gender (male/female) 4/3 4/3 45/26 36/17 9/9 ns
Admission sources (n, %)       ns
 Emergency 1 (14.3) 56 (78.9) 40 (75.5) 16 (88.9)  
 Internal dept. 2 (28.6) 6 (8.5) 6 (11.3) 0  
 Surgical dept. 4 (57.1) 9 (12.7) 7 (13.2) 2 (11.1)  
Presumed infection site (n, %)       ns
 Lung 50 (70.4) 36 (67.92) 14 (77.7)  
 Abdomen 11 (15.5) 8 (15.09) 3 (16.7)  
 Cardiovascular system 3 (4.2) 3 (5.66) 0  
 Bone or soft tissue 1 (1.4) 1 (1.89) 0  
 Urinary tract 6 (8.5) 5 (9.43) 1 (5.6)  
Aetiologya
 Bacteria 32 (45.1) 21 (39.6) 11 (61.1) ns
 Virus 5 (7.0) 3 (5.7) 2 (11.1) ns
 Others or undetected 34 (47.9) 29 (54.7) 5 (27.8) ns
Comorbidities (n, %)
 Hypertension 0 3 (42.9) 38 (53.5) 28 (52.8) 10 (55.6) ns
 Diabetes 0 3 (42.9) 20 (28.2) 13 (24.5) 7 (38.9) ns
 Chronic cardiac dysfunction 0 2 (28.6) 27 (38.0) 20 (37.7) 7 (38.9) ns
 Cerebrovascular disease 0 0 28 (39.4) 22 (41.5) 6 (33.3) ns
 Chronic renal dysfunction 0 0 0 5(7.0) 4(7.5) 1(5.6) ns 
Smoker       ns
 Never 6 (85.7) 6 (85.7) 47 (66.2) 33 (62.3) 14 (77.8)  
 Previous (stopped > 3 months) 0 (0) 1 (14.3) 14 (19.7) 11 (20.8) 3 (16.7)  
 Former (stopped ≤ 3 months) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)  
 Current 1 (14.3) 0 (0) 10 (14.1) 9 (16.9) 1 (5.6)  
Alcohol use       ns
 Never or daily intake ≤ 50 g of pure alcohol 7 (100) 6 (85.7) 64 (90.1) 46 (86.8) 18 (100)  
 Previous (daily intake > 50 g of pure alcohol, stopped > 3 months) 0 (0) 1 (14.3) 3 (4.2) 3 (5.7) 0 (0)  
 Former (daily intake > 50 g of pure alcohol, stopped ≤ 3 months) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)  
 Current intake (> 50 g of pure alcohol) 0 (0) 0 (0) 4 (5.6) 4 (7.5) 0 (0)  
Severity scores
 APACHE II 19.51 ± 5.31 20.55 ± 5.95# 19.51 ± 5.31 23.38 ± 6.19 0.04
 SOFA D0 6.00 ± 2.39 9.91 ± 3.11# 9.70 ± 3.21 10.44 ± 2.93 ns
 D3 8.11 ± 3.66 7.43 ± 3.35 9.5 ± 4.01 0.04
 D7 7.02 ± 3.29 6.24 ± 3.01 9.13 ± 3.31 0.01
Inflammatory and immune indicators
 D0 (upon enrollment)
  WBC (/μl) 6.31 [5.23, 7.54] 13.89 [8.57,16.22] 13.66 [8.89, 20.14] 13.66 [8.59, 18.92] 14.61 [8.89, 22.23] ns
  ALC (/μl) 2.74 [1.99, 2.86] 1.07 [0.96, 2.22] 0.59 [0.52, 0.90]# 0.59 [0.51, 0.99] 0.52 [0.51, 0.66] ns
  hs-CRP (mg/l) 6 [0.81, 119] 94.60 [44, 136]# 96.50 [65.85, 146.50] 85.20 [33.88, 126.30] ns
  PCT (μg/l) 0.09 [0.05, 2.05] 1.18 [0.34, 12.82]# 0.98 [0.30,17.79] 1.27 [0.47, 1.93] ns
  Treg (%) 1.77 [1.11, 2.56] 1.52 [1.07, 1.77] 2.14 [1.44, 3.91] 2.14 [1.49, 3.54] 1.69 [0.39, 5.40] ns
 D3
 WBC (/μl) 9.78 [7.35, 15.29] 9.47 [7.17, 9.47] 14.07 [7.68, 19.59] 0.03
  ALC (/μl) 0.93 [0.55, 1.30] 0.99 [0.59, 1.42] 0.76 [0.55, 0.83] 0.02
  hs-CRP (mg/l) 63.5 [36.6, 107] 65.8 [41.5, 110] 45 [24, 105.9] ns
  PCT (μg/l) 0.87 [0.27, 2.53] 0.90 [0.26, 3.53] 0.53 [0.26, 2.15] ns
  Treg (%) 1.94 [1.39, 2.86] 1.97 [1.41, 2.87] 1.47 [0.35, 2.55] 0.05
 D7
  WBC (/μl) 8.21 [6.08, 12.02] 7.98 [5.90, 9.06] 13.36 [6.30, 15.90] 0.02
  ALC (/μl) 0.97 [0.66, 1.28] 0.99 [0.78, 1.29] 0.62 [0.47, 1.11] 0.02
  hs-CRP (mg/l) 43.0 [14.75, 78.8] 46.85 [15.98, 81.4] 32.6 [13.45, 58.28] ns
  PCT (μg/l) 0.28 [0.20, 0.58] 0.21 [0.20, 0.46] 0.69 [0.22, 1.37] ns
  Treg (%) 1.38 [1.11, 2.17] 1.37 [1.11, 1.89] 2.17 [0.60, 3.91] ns
  1. APACHE, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation; SOFA, sequential organ failure assessment; WBC, white blood count; ALC, absolute lymphocyte count; hs-CRP, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein; PCT, procalcitonin; Treg (%), percentage of regulatory T cells in CD4 positive T cells
  2. aReferred to any pathogen detected within 7 days upon enrolled; # Significant difference with p < 0.05 compared to ICU control. Chi square tests were used for categorical data, Student’s t-test for normally distributed continuous data and Mann–Whitney-U tests for nonnormally distributed data. Mean and standard deviations are shown for age and severity scores and medians and interquartile ranges are for all inflammatory and immune indicators