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Table 3 Role of WISP3 in human cancers

From: The emerging role of WISP proteins in tumorigenesis and cancer therapy

Cancer type Function Target Reference
Breast cancer Suppresses cell growth, invasion, metastasis; maintains acinar organization; reverses EMT to MET, reduces TICs (tumor initiating cells) Inhibits IGF-IR, IRS1 and ERK-1/2, snail and ZEB1, BMP4, TAK1 and p38 kinase, PI3K/Akt, TβRIII, and Notch1; increases E-cadherin [22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34]
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) Detected in only a few HCC samples, and its function remains unknown Not detected [37]
Colon cancer Harbors loss of expression, frameshifts, and mutations Not detected [2, 49]
Gastric cancer Exhibits mutations and loss of expression; associated with cancer size and tumor invasion; promotes cell proliferation, migration and invasion Induces Wnt/β-catenin signaling [49, 53, 54]
Lung cancer Exhibits mutations in early nonsmoking lung cancer patients Not detected [67]
Melanoma Shows loss of copy numbers   [71]
Chondrosarcoma Promotes cell migration and differentiation Upregulates ICAM-1and VEGF-A; inhibits miR-452 [95, 96]