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Table 2 Role of WISP2 in human cancers

From: The emerging role of WISP proteins in tumorigenesis and cancer therapy

Cancer type Function Target Reference
Breast cancer Exhibits estrogen and progesterone inducible expression; enhances tumor cell proliferation and growth; associated with metastasis and late stage; inhibits tumor growth, migration and invasion; causes cell cycle arrest at the G1/G1 phase Induced by PKA; inhibits Snail, E-cadherin, MMP-2, MMP-9, Skp2, PI3K/Akt, TGF-β pathways; inhibited by p53 mutants; induces PD-L1, p27, and FOXO3a [9, 11,12,13,14,15, 18,19,20,21, 103, 104]
Hepatocellular carcinoma Promotes cell growth, proliferation and migration; involved in HCC progression Increased by β-catenin, and TCF-4J; inhibited by GSK3β [39,40,41,42,43,44]
Colon cancer WISP2 DNA expression is amplified, but function remains unknown Not detected [2]
Gastric cancer Associated with tumor stage, differentiation status, and survival; inhibits cell growth, migration and invasion Downregulates MMP-9 and MMP-2 through JNK and ERK pathways [51, 52]
Pancreatic cancer Promotes mesenchymal–epithelial transition; regulates pancreatic cancers via regulating microenvironments Promoted by BRCA2 [55,56,57,58]
Lung cancer Associated with adverse overall survival N/A [65, 66]
Leiomyoma inhibits cell proliferation and motility N/A [100]