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Table 2 RCTs with pharmacological interventions

From: Systematic review of randomized controlled trials for chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME)

Intervention N. of participants (N. of arms, control) Dose, period (weeks) Primary measurement (subscale) Statistical significance
Psychiatric drugs
 (-)-OSU6162 [16] 62 (2, placebo) 30 mg, 60 mg/day, 2 MFS, CGI Not significant
 Duloxetine [17] 60 (2, placebo) 60–120 mg/day, 12 MFI (general fatigue) Not significant
 Clonidine-hydrochloride [18] 188 (3, placebo, HC) 50 μg or 100 μg/day, 9 Number of steps per day Not significant
 Methylphenidate [19] 60 (crossover, placebo) 10 mg/day, 4 CIS (fatigue, concentration) VAS (fatigue, concentration) CIS (fatigue): P < 0.01, VAS: P < 0.01
 Galantamine hydrobromide [20] 434 (5, placebo) 7.5–30 mg/day, 16 CGI Not significant
 Moclobemide [21] 90 (2, placebo) 450–600 mg/day, 6 Globally improved cases, KPS, POMS Not significant
 Fluoxetine [22] 96 (2, placebo) 20 mg/day, 8 CIS (fatigue)a Not significant
 Galantamine hydrobromide [23] 49 (2, placebo) 30 mg/day, 8 VAS (fatigue) Not significant
Immunomodulators
 BioBran MGN-3 [24] 71 (2, placebo) 6 g/day, 8 Chalder scale(physical) Not significant
 Staphypan Berna [25] 100 (2, placebo) 0.1–1.0 ml/week and 1.0 ml/4 weeks, 24 CGI, CPRS CGI: P < 0.001, CPRS: P < 0.01
 Gamma globulin [26] 71 (2, placebo) 1 gm/kg 3 times/month, 8 Mean functional score P < 0.05 (6 month)
 Poly(I):poly(C12U) [27] 92 (2, placebo) 400–800 mg/week, 24 KPSa P < 0.05
Cortisol
 Hydrocortisone + 9-alfa-fludrocortisone [28] 80 (crossover, placebo) 5 mg + 50 μg/day, 12 VAS (fatigue) Not significant
 Fludrocortisone acetate [29] 100 (2, placebo) 0.1 mg/day, 9 Global wellness score Not significant
 Hydrocortisone [30] 32 (crossover, placebo) 5 or 10 mg/day, 4 Chalder scale, CGI Chalder scale: P < 0.01
 Hydrocortisone [31] 70 (2, placebo) 16 mg/m2/day, 12 Global wellness score Not significant
 Fludrocortisone acetate [32] 25 (crossover, placebo) 0.1–0.2 mg/day, 6 VAS, SF-36a Not significant
Mitochondrial modulators
 KPAX002 [33] 128 (2, placebo) 12 mg/day, 12 CIS (total score) Not significant
 CoQ10 + NADH [34] 73 (2, placebo) 200 mg + 20 mg/day, 8 FIS-40 (total score) P < 0.05
 NADH [35] 26 (crossover, placebo) 10 mg/day, 4 Self-developed subject symptom scoring system Not significant
Nutrients
 Acclydine [36] 57 (2, placebo) 1000–125 mg/day, 14 CIS (fatigue), SIP-8 Not significant
 Polynutrient supplement [37] 63 (2, placebo) 125 ml/day, 10 CIS (fatigue), N of CDC symptoms, SIP-8 Not significant
Others
 Anakinra [38] 50 (2, placebo) 100 mg/day, 4 CIS (fatigue) Not significant
 Ondansetron [39] 67 (2, placebo) 16 mg/day, 10 CIS (fatigue), SIP-8 Not significant
 Homeopathic treatment [40] 103 (2, placebo) Not fixed, 24 MFI Not significant
  1. MFS Mental Fatigue Scale, CGI Clinical Global Impression, MFI Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory, CIS Checklist Individual Strength, VAS Visual Analogue Scale, KPS Karnofsky Performance Score, POMS Profile of Mood States, CPRS Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale, SF-36 36-item Short Form health survey, FIS-40 Fatigue Impact Scale-40, SIP-8 Sickness Impact Profile-8
  2. aIn cases of no mention for primary measurements or main outcomes in original articles with ≥ 4 measurements, the most fatigue-related measurements were selected by the authors of this review study