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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of participants at time of recruitment

From: Reduced heart rate variability predicts fatigue severity in individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis

VariableHealthy controls (n = 25)CFS/ME (n = 45)p-valuea
Age (years)44.96 ± 1.3046.41 ± 0.84N.S.
BMI (kg/m2)23.77 ± 0.6124.59 ± 0.69N.S.
SBP (mmHg)115.2 ± 2.15121.2 ± 1.990.057
DBP (mmHg)74.45 ± 1.5679.56 ± 1.380.022
HR (bpm)67.71 ± 1.9374.72 ± 1.210.002
NCQ0.40 ± 0.1510.11 ± 0.28< 0.001
FIS-40
 Global score (0–160)17.12 ± 3.25140.9 ± 1.79< 0.001
  Physical4.60 ± 0.9436.95 ± 0.39< 0.001
  Cognitive4.48 ± 1.0335.73 ± 0.66< 0.001
  Psychosocial8.04 ± 1.4668.27 ± 1.04< 0.001
COMPASS-31
 Global score (0–100)27.31 ± 2.4280.10 ± 2.91< 0.001
  Orthostatic intolerance2.52 ± 0.257.45 ± 0.31< 0.001
  Vasomotor0.48 ± 0.211.93 ± 0.24< 0.001
  Secretomotor0.76 ± 0.184.73 ± 0.18< 0.001
  Gastrointestinal5.60 ± 0.7413.45 ± 0.68< 0.001
  Bladder0.32 ± 0.113.48 ± 0.32< 0.001
  Pupillomotor2.96 ± 0.4610.32 ± 0.55< 0.001
PSQI
 Global score (0–21)4.52 ± 0.6315.05 ± 0.57< 0.001
  Subjective sleep quality0.56 ± 0.122.23 ± 0.14< 0.001
  Sleep latency0.72 ± 0.171.89 ± 0.16< 0.001
  Sleep duration0.92 ± 0.172.05 ± 0.13< 0.001
  Habitual sleep efficiency0.56 ± 0.221.95 ± 0.17< 0.001
  Sleep disturbances1.04 ± 0.072.27 ± 0.13< 0.001
  Sleeping medication0.28 ± 0.152.11 ± 0.19< 0.001
  Daytime dysfunction0.44 ± 0.122.55 ± 0.11< 0.001
HADS
 Global score (0–42)5.15 ± 0.7026.68 ± 1.41< 0.001
  Anxiety3.96 ± 0.4113.73 ± 0.73< 0.001
  Depression1.16 ± 0.2912.95 ± 0.68< 0.001
  1. Baseline self-reported measures scores (global and subscales) of symptoms, as explained in “Methods” section. Data are shown as mean ± SEM for each item
  2. aData were analyzed using Student’s t test for independent samples, and the Mann–Whitney U non-parametric test when appropriate