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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of participants at time of recruitment

From: Reduced heart rate variability predicts fatigue severity in individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis

Variable Healthy controls (n = 25) CFS/ME (n = 45) p-valuea
Age (years) 44.96 ± 1.30 46.41 ± 0.84 N.S.
BMI (kg/m2) 23.77 ± 0.61 24.59 ± 0.69 N.S.
SBP (mmHg) 115.2 ± 2.15 121.2 ± 1.99 0.057
DBP (mmHg) 74.45 ± 1.56 79.56 ± 1.38 0.022
HR (bpm) 67.71 ± 1.93 74.72 ± 1.21 0.002
NCQ 0.40 ± 0.15 10.11 ± 0.28 < 0.001
FIS-40
 Global score (0–160) 17.12 ± 3.25 140.9 ± 1.79 < 0.001
  Physical 4.60 ± 0.94 36.95 ± 0.39 < 0.001
  Cognitive 4.48 ± 1.03 35.73 ± 0.66 < 0.001
  Psychosocial 8.04 ± 1.46 68.27 ± 1.04 < 0.001
COMPASS-31
 Global score (0–100) 27.31 ± 2.42 80.10 ± 2.91 < 0.001
  Orthostatic intolerance 2.52 ± 0.25 7.45 ± 0.31 < 0.001
  Vasomotor 0.48 ± 0.21 1.93 ± 0.24 < 0.001
  Secretomotor 0.76 ± 0.18 4.73 ± 0.18 < 0.001
  Gastrointestinal 5.60 ± 0.74 13.45 ± 0.68 < 0.001
  Bladder 0.32 ± 0.11 3.48 ± 0.32 < 0.001
  Pupillomotor 2.96 ± 0.46 10.32 ± 0.55 < 0.001
PSQI
 Global score (0–21) 4.52 ± 0.63 15.05 ± 0.57 < 0.001
  Subjective sleep quality 0.56 ± 0.12 2.23 ± 0.14 < 0.001
  Sleep latency 0.72 ± 0.17 1.89 ± 0.16 < 0.001
  Sleep duration 0.92 ± 0.17 2.05 ± 0.13 < 0.001
  Habitual sleep efficiency 0.56 ± 0.22 1.95 ± 0.17 < 0.001
  Sleep disturbances 1.04 ± 0.07 2.27 ± 0.13 < 0.001
  Sleeping medication 0.28 ± 0.15 2.11 ± 0.19 < 0.001
  Daytime dysfunction 0.44 ± 0.12 2.55 ± 0.11 < 0.001
HADS
 Global score (0–42) 5.15 ± 0.70 26.68 ± 1.41 < 0.001
  Anxiety 3.96 ± 0.41 13.73 ± 0.73 < 0.001
  Depression 1.16 ± 0.29 12.95 ± 0.68 < 0.001
  1. Baseline self-reported measures scores (global and subscales) of symptoms, as explained in “Methods” section. Data are shown as mean ± SEM for each item
  2. aData were analyzed using Student’s t test for independent samples, and the Mann–Whitney U non-parametric test when appropriate