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Table 4 Reanalysis for the effects of inulin-type fructans on glycemic indicators (FBG, HbA1c, FINS and HOMA-IR) excluding high heterogeneity studies

From: Inulin-type fructans supplementation improves glycemic control for the prediabetes and type 2 diabetes populations: results from a GRADE-assessed systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis of 33 randomized controlled trials

Subgroupsa FBG (mmol/l) HbA1c (%) FINS (μU/ml) HOMA-IR
n WMD (95% CI) Pb I2 (%) Pc n WMD (95% CI) Pb I2 (%) Pc n WMD (95% CI) Pb I2 (%) Pc n WMD (95% CI) Pb I2 (%) Pc
Healthy-subjects 5 − 0.04 (− 0.18, 0.09) 0.513 0.0 0.447       5 − 0.10 (− 1.29, 1.10) 0.874 59.8 0.041 2 − 0.76 (− 1.53, 0.02) 0.056 0.0 0.830
T2DM and prediabetes 11 − 0.58 (− 0.86, − 0.31) < 0.001 0.0 0.672 7 − 0.37 (− 0.71, − 0.02) 0.036 18.7 0.287 8 − 1.14 (− 2.05, − 0.23) 0.014 49.7 0.052 6 − 0.47 (− 0.64, − 0.30) < 0.001 39.3 0.143
Overweight and obesity 7 − 0.08 (− 0.18, 0.02) 0.126 0.0 0.748       5 − 1.54 (− 3.11, 0.03) 0.054 0.0 0.844 3 − 0.38 (− 1.20, 0.43) 0.353 0.0 0.391
Others 7 − 0.08 (− 0.18, 0.02) 0.419 0.0 0.748 1 − 0.20 (− 0.44, 0.04) 0.101 ~ ~ 5 − 1.14 (− 1.93, − 0.34) 0.005 0.0 0.655 4 − 0.31 (− 0.55, − 0.08) 0.010 0.0 0.883
Total 30 − 0.10 (− 0.18, − 0.03) 0.005 4.4 0.397 8 − 0.25 (− 0.45, − 0.06) 0.011 12.5 0.333 23 − 0.89 (− 1.50, − 0.28) 0.004 51.6 0.002 15 − 0.43 (− 0.56, − 0.29) < 0.001 0.0 0.553
  1. FBG fasting blood glucose, FINS fasting insulin, HbA1c glycosylated hemoglobin, HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment- insulin resistance, T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus
  2. aExcluded trials: FBG: Dehghan [30], Dehghan [29], and Guess [37]; HbA1c: Dehghan [31], Dehghan [29], Gargari [34] and Dewulf [32]; FINS: Dehghan [31], Gargari [34] and Ghavami [35]; HOMA-IR: Dehghan [31], Gargari [34] and Ghavami [35]
  3. bP value for subgroup differences between groups
  4. cP value for heterogeneity within each subgroup