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Table 1 Characteristics of the included studies

From: Inulin-type fructans supplementation improves glycemic control for the prediabetes and type 2 diabetes populations: results from a GRADE-assessed systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis of 33 randomized controlled trials

References, countryParticipantsInterventionComparisonOutcomeaStudy design
N (I/C)AgeGenderBMIPopulationTypeDosage
Alles [21], Netherlands20 (20/20)59M-9 F-1128.3 ± 3.5T2DMFOS15 g/days (20 days)Glucose↔FBGC, RCT, SB
Asemi [22], Iran54 (27/27)35–70M and F30.4 ± 5.3T2DMInulin and Lactobacillus sporogenes8.4 g/days (56 days)L. sporogenes bread↔FBG, ↓FINS, HbA1cP, RCT, DB
Behrouz [23], Iran59 (29/30)20–60M and F25–40Nonalcoholic fatty liver diseaseOligofructose and probiotic16 g/days (84 days)Maltodextrin↔FBG, FINS, HbA1cP, RCT, DB
Bomhof [24], Canada14 (8/6)≥ 18M-8 F-6> 25non-alcoholic steatohepatitis with overweightOligofructose16 g/days (252 days)Maltodextrin↔FINS, HOMA-IR, ↑FBGP, RCT, DB
Bonsu [25], Canada26 (12/14)> 40M and F30.3 ± 4.4T2DMInulin10 g/days (84 days)Xylitol↔FBG, HOMA-IRP, RCT, DB
Canfora [26], Netherlands44 (21/23)45–70M and F28–40Overweight or obeseGOS15 g/days (84 days)Maltodextrin↔FBG, FINSP, RCT, DB
Daubioul [27], Italy7 (7/7)48–60M and F21.7–37.6Non-alcoholic steatohepatitisFOS16 g/days (56 days)Maltodextrin↔FBG, FINSC, RCT, DB
de Luis [28], Spain32 (16/16)25–60M and F30–35ObeseFOS9.84 g/days (30 days)Control cookie↔FBG, FINS, HbA1cP, RCT, DB
Dehghan [31], Iran52 (27/25)20–65F-only25–34.99T2DMOligofructose and inulin10 g/days (56 days)Maltodextrin↓FBG, HOMA-IRP, RCT, TB
Dehghan [32], Iran49 (24/25)20–65F-only> 25T2DMInulin10 g/days (56 days)Maltodextrin↓FBG, FINS, HbA1c, HOMA-IRP, RCT, DB
Dehghan [29], Iran49 (27/22)30–65F-only25–34.99T2DMOligofructose and inulin10 g/days (60 days)Maltodextrin↓FBG, HOMA-IR, ↔ FINSP, RCT, DB
Dewulf [32], Belgium30 (15/15)18–65F-only> 30ObeseInulin and oligofructose16 g/days (90 days)Maltodextrin↔FBG, FINS, HbA1c, HOMA-IRP, RCT, DB
Forcheron [33], France17 (9/8)31.7 ± 4.0M-6 F-11NDHealthyInulin and oligofructose10 g/days (180 days)Maltodextrin↔FBG, FINSP, RCT, DB
Gargari [34], Iran49 (24/25)20–65F-only25–35T2DMInulin10 g/days (60 days)Maltodextrin↓FBG, FINS, HbA1c, HOMA-IRP, RCT, TB
Ghavami [35], Iran46 (23/23)30–50M and F25–35T2DMInulin10 g/days (42 days)Starch↔FBG, FINS, HbA1c, ↓HOMA-IRP, RCT, DB
Giacco [36], Italy30 (30/30)45.5 ± 9.9M-20 F-1026.6 ± 2.2Mild hypercholesterolaemiaFOS10.6 g/days (60 days)Maltodextrine plus aspartame↔FBGC, RCT, DB
Guess [37], UK38 (20/18)> 18M and F25–35PrediabetesInulin30 g/days (126 days)Cellulose↓FBG, FINS, HbA1cP, RCT, DB
Guess [38], UK34 (34/34)≥ 18M and F25–35Overweight subjects with prediabetesInulin30 g/days (42 days)Cellulose↔FINS, ↓HbA1cC, RCT, DB
Jackson [39], UK54 (27/27)35–65M and F20–32HealthyInulin10 g/days (56 days)Maltodextrin↔FBG, FINSP, RCT, DB
Javadi [40], Iran38 (19/19)20–60M and F30.7 ± 3.7Non-alcoholic steatohepatitisInulin10 g/days (90 days)Maltodextrin↔FBG, ↓FINS, HbA1cP, RCT, DB
Luo [41], France12 (12/12)19–32M-only21.0 ± 1.7HealthyFOS20 g/days (28 days)Sucrose↔FBG, FINSC, RCT, DB
Luo [42], Belgium10 (10/10)57.0 ± 6.3M-6 F-428.0 ± 3.2T2DMFOS20 g/days (28 days)Sucrose↔FBG, FINS, HOMA-IRC, RCT, DB
Meksawan [43], Thailand9 (9/9)> 50M-5 F-4NDElderly CAPD patientsFOS20 g/days (30 days)Sucrose↔FBGC, RCT, DB
Parnell [44], Canada39 (21/18)20–70M and F>25Overweight or obeseOligofructose21 g/days (84 days)Maltodextrin↔FBGP, RCT, DB
Pedersen [45], UK29 (14/15)42–65M-only28.2 ± 1.0T2DMGOS5.5 g/days (84 days)Maltodextrin↔FBG, FINS, HbA1c, HOMA-IRP, RCT, DB
Rajkumar [46], India30 (15/15)20–25M-14 F-1618.5–24.9HealthyFOS and L. salivarius10 g/days (42 days)L. salivarius↔FBG, FINS, HbA1cP, RCT, SB
Roshanravan [47], Iran30 (15/15)30–55M and F27–35T2DMInulin10 g/days (45 days)Starch↔FBG, FINS, HbA1c, HOMA-IRP, RCT, DB
Russo [48], Italy15 (15/15)18.8 ± 0.7M-only22.8 ± 2.3HealthyInulin11 g/days (35 days)Control pasta↔FBG, HbA1c, HOMA-IR, ↑FINSC, RCT, DB
Scheid [49], Brazil72 (35/37)67.1 ± 6.1M and F27.9 ± 5.0ElderlyFOS7.4 g/days (63 days)Maltodextrin↔FBG, FINS, HbA1cP, RCT, DB
Shakeri [50], Iran52 (26/26)53M and F30.3 ± 5.3T2DMInulin and Lactobacillus sporogenes8.4 g/days (56 days)Lactobacillus sporogenes control breads↔FBGP, RCT, DB
Tovar [51], Mexican59 (30/29)18–50F-only≥ 25ObeseInulin10 g/days (90 days)No treatment↔FBGP, RCT, DB
Tripkovic [52], UK10 (10/10)30–55M-only25–35OverweightInulin15 g/days (28 days)Control bread rolls↔FBG, FINS, HbA1cC, RCT, DB
Vulevic [53], UK45 (45/45)18–65M-16 F-29> 25OverweightGOS5.5 g/days (84 days)Maltodextrin↔FBG, ↓FINSC, RCT, DB
  1. C Cross-over, CAPD continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, DB double-blinded, FBG fasting blood glucose, FINS fasting insulin, FOS fructooligosaccharide, GOS galactooligosaccharides, HbA1c glycosylated hemoglobin, HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, ND no data, P Parallel, RCT randomized controlled trial, SB single-blinded, TB triple-blinded, T2DM Type 2 diabetes
  2. a↑: means the glycemic indicator(s) in the ITF intervention group was (were) significantly increased while compared with their control group; ↔, means the glycemic indicator(s) in the ITF intervention group was (were) not significantly changed while compared with their control group; ↓, means the glycemic indicator(s) in the ITF intervention group was (were) significantly decreased while compared with their control group