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Table 1 Characteristics of the included studies

From: Inulin-type fructans supplementation improves glycemic control for the prediabetes and type 2 diabetes populations: results from a GRADE-assessed systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis of 33 randomized controlled trials

References, country Participants Intervention Comparison Outcomea Study design
N (I/C) Age Gender BMI Population Type Dosage
Alles [21], Netherlands 20 (20/20) 59 M-9 F-11 28.3 ± 3.5 T2DM FOS 15 g/days (20 days) Glucose ↔FBG C, RCT, SB
Asemi [22], Iran 54 (27/27) 35–70 M and F 30.4 ± 5.3 T2DM Inulin and Lactobacillus sporogenes 8.4 g/days (56 days) L. sporogenes bread ↔FBG, ↓FINS, HbA1c P, RCT, DB
Behrouz [23], Iran 59 (29/30) 20–60 M and F 25–40 Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease Oligofructose and probiotic 16 g/days (84 days) Maltodextrin ↔FBG, FINS, HbA1c P, RCT, DB
Bomhof [24], Canada 14 (8/6) ≥ 18 M-8 F-6 > 25 non-alcoholic steatohepatitis with overweight Oligofructose 16 g/days (252 days) Maltodextrin ↔FINS, HOMA-IR, ↑FBG P, RCT, DB
Bonsu [25], Canada 26 (12/14) > 40 M and F 30.3 ± 4.4 T2DM Inulin 10 g/days (84 days) Xylitol ↔FBG, HOMA-IR P, RCT, DB
Canfora [26], Netherlands 44 (21/23) 45–70 M and F 28–40 Overweight or obese GOS 15 g/days (84 days) Maltodextrin ↔FBG, FINS P, RCT, DB
Daubioul [27], Italy 7 (7/7) 48–60 M and F 21.7–37.6 Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis FOS 16 g/days (56 days) Maltodextrin ↔FBG, FINS C, RCT, DB
de Luis [28], Spain 32 (16/16) 25–60 M and F 30–35 Obese FOS 9.84 g/days (30 days) Control cookie ↔FBG, FINS, HbA1c P, RCT, DB
Dehghan [31], Iran 52 (27/25) 20–65 F-only 25–34.99 T2DM Oligofructose and inulin 10 g/days (56 days) Maltodextrin ↓FBG, HOMA-IR P, RCT, TB
Dehghan [32], Iran 49 (24/25) 20–65 F-only > 25 T2DM Inulin 10 g/days (56 days) Maltodextrin ↓FBG, FINS, HbA1c, HOMA-IR P, RCT, DB
Dehghan [29], Iran 49 (27/22) 30–65 F-only 25–34.99 T2DM Oligofructose and inulin 10 g/days (60 days) Maltodextrin ↓FBG, HOMA-IR, ↔ FINS P, RCT, DB
Dewulf [32], Belgium 30 (15/15) 18–65 F-only > 30 Obese Inulin and oligofructose 16 g/days (90 days) Maltodextrin ↔FBG, FINS, HbA1c, HOMA-IR P, RCT, DB
Forcheron [33], France 17 (9/8) 31.7 ± 4.0 M-6 F-11 ND Healthy Inulin and oligofructose 10 g/days (180 days) Maltodextrin ↔FBG, FINS P, RCT, DB
Gargari [34], Iran 49 (24/25) 20–65 F-only 25–35 T2DM Inulin 10 g/days (60 days) Maltodextrin ↓FBG, FINS, HbA1c, HOMA-IR P, RCT, TB
Ghavami [35], Iran 46 (23/23) 30–50 M and F 25–35 T2DM Inulin 10 g/days (42 days) Starch ↔FBG, FINS, HbA1c, ↓HOMA-IR P, RCT, DB
Giacco [36], Italy 30 (30/30) 45.5 ± 9.9 M-20 F-10 26.6 ± 2.2 Mild hypercholesterolaemia FOS 10.6 g/days (60 days) Maltodextrine plus aspartame ↔FBG C, RCT, DB
Guess [37], UK 38 (20/18) > 18 M and F 25–35 Prediabetes Inulin 30 g/days (126 days) Cellulose ↓FBG, FINS, HbA1c P, RCT, DB
Guess [38], UK 34 (34/34) ≥ 18 M and F 25–35 Overweight subjects with prediabetes Inulin 30 g/days (42 days) Cellulose ↔FINS, ↓HbA1c C, RCT, DB
Jackson [39], UK 54 (27/27) 35–65 M and F 20–32 Healthy Inulin 10 g/days (56 days) Maltodextrin ↔FBG, FINS P, RCT, DB
Javadi [40], Iran 38 (19/19) 20–60 M and F 30.7 ± 3.7 Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis Inulin 10 g/days (90 days) Maltodextrin ↔FBG, ↓FINS, HbA1c P, RCT, DB
Luo [41], France 12 (12/12) 19–32 M-only 21.0 ± 1.7 Healthy FOS 20 g/days (28 days) Sucrose ↔FBG, FINS C, RCT, DB
Luo [42], Belgium 10 (10/10) 57.0 ± 6.3 M-6 F-4 28.0 ± 3.2 T2DM FOS 20 g/days (28 days) Sucrose ↔FBG, FINS, HOMA-IR C, RCT, DB
Meksawan [43], Thailand 9 (9/9) > 50 M-5 F-4 ND Elderly CAPD patients FOS 20 g/days (30 days) Sucrose ↔FBG C, RCT, DB
Parnell [44], Canada 39 (21/18) 20–70 M and F >25 Overweight or obese Oligofructose 21 g/days (84 days) Maltodextrin ↔FBG P, RCT, DB
Pedersen [45], UK 29 (14/15) 42–65 M-only 28.2 ± 1.0 T2DM GOS 5.5 g/days (84 days) Maltodextrin ↔FBG, FINS, HbA1c, HOMA-IR P, RCT, DB
Rajkumar [46], India 30 (15/15) 20–25 M-14 F-16 18.5–24.9 Healthy FOS and L. salivarius 10 g/days (42 days) L. salivarius ↔FBG, FINS, HbA1c P, RCT, SB
Roshanravan [47], Iran 30 (15/15) 30–55 M and F 27–35 T2DM Inulin 10 g/days (45 days) Starch ↔FBG, FINS, HbA1c, HOMA-IR P, RCT, DB
Russo [48], Italy 15 (15/15) 18.8 ± 0.7 M-only 22.8 ± 2.3 Healthy Inulin 11 g/days (35 days) Control pasta ↔FBG, HbA1c, HOMA-IR, ↑FINS C, RCT, DB
Scheid [49], Brazil 72 (35/37) 67.1 ± 6.1 M and F 27.9 ± 5.0 Elderly FOS 7.4 g/days (63 days) Maltodextrin ↔FBG, FINS, HbA1c P, RCT, DB
Shakeri [50], Iran 52 (26/26) 53 M and F 30.3 ± 5.3 T2DM Inulin and Lactobacillus sporogenes 8.4 g/days (56 days) Lactobacillus sporogenes control breads ↔FBG P, RCT, DB
Tovar [51], Mexican 59 (30/29) 18–50 F-only ≥ 25 Obese Inulin 10 g/days (90 days) No treatment ↔FBG P, RCT, DB
Tripkovic [52], UK 10 (10/10) 30–55 M-only 25–35 Overweight Inulin 15 g/days (28 days) Control bread rolls ↔FBG, FINS, HbA1c C, RCT, DB
Vulevic [53], UK 45 (45/45) 18–65 M-16 F-29 > 25 Overweight GOS 5.5 g/days (84 days) Maltodextrin ↔FBG, ↓FINS C, RCT, DB
  1. C Cross-over, CAPD continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, DB double-blinded, FBG fasting blood glucose, FINS fasting insulin, FOS fructooligosaccharide, GOS galactooligosaccharides, HbA1c glycosylated hemoglobin, HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, ND no data, P Parallel, RCT randomized controlled trial, SB single-blinded, TB triple-blinded, T2DM Type 2 diabetes
  2. a↑: means the glycemic indicator(s) in the ITF intervention group was (were) significantly increased while compared with their control group; ↔, means the glycemic indicator(s) in the ITF intervention group was (were) not significantly changed while compared with their control group; ↓, means the glycemic indicator(s) in the ITF intervention group was (were) significantly decreased while compared with their control group