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Fig. 5 | Journal of Translational Medicine

Fig. 5

From: Exosomes of pasteurized milk: potential pathogens of Western diseases

Fig. 5

Milk exosomes and hyperphagia. Milk, a feeding and signaling system promoting postnatal anabolism and growth, most likely interferes with satiety control in the hypothalamus, which is possible as milk exosomes accumulate in the brain. Cholecystokinin (CCK) is released by duodenal I-cell during intestinal nutrient abundance. CKK is an important hormone that induces satiety signals in the hypothalamus via binding to CCK receptor 2 (CCKR2). CCKR2 is a direct target of miR-148a. It is thus conceivable that milk exosomes maintain a “hungry brain” to increase milk intake during the breastfeeding period. Persistent milk exosome intake by consumption of pasteurized cow’s milk may maintain this hyperphagic state, a further mechanism promoting obesity

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