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Fig. 13 | Journal of Translational Medicine

Fig. 13

From: Exosomes of pasteurized milk: potential pathogens of Western diseases

Fig. 13

Dairy milk exosomes and hepatocellular carcinoma. After oral administration milk exosomes accumulate preferentially in the liver and may increase the hepatocellular levels of miR-148a, miR-21 and miR-155, which are upregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In hepatitis B virus (HCB)-associated HCC overexpression of miR-148a may be further increased by milk exosome-derived miR-148a. Milk exosome-derived transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) may further increase the expression of miR-155, which downregulates suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1), thereby enhancing epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). MiR-155-mediated suppression of p53-induced nuclear protein 1 (TP53INP1) promotes cancer stem cell (CSC) proliferation in the liver. Milk exosomes may thus increase the risk for HCC. Thus, milk exosomes may augment the tumorigenic effects of hepatitis B (HCB) and hepatitis C virus (HCC)-induced upregulation of miR-148a and miR-155, respectively

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