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Table 2 Clinical characteristics of the study participants

From: N-glycosylation patterns of plasma proteins and immunoglobulin G in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

  Cohort #1 (discovery) Cohort #2 (replication)
Control COPD p Control COPD p
N 95 137   148 61  
Sex
 Males (N) 49 (52%) 86 (63% 0.105 52 (35%) 41 (67%) < 0.001
 Females (N) 46 (48%) 51 (37%)   96 (65%) 20 (33%)  
Age (years) 64 (58–67) 65 (59–72) 0.050 49 (45–57) 63 (59–72) < 0.001
GOLD classification (N)a
 1   0 (0%)    11 (18%)  
 2   48 (35%)    23 (38%)  
 3   49 (36%)    18 (30%)  
 4   40 (29%)    9 (15%)  
 A   66 (48%)    13 (21%)  
 B   31 (23%)    21 (34%)  
 C   7 (5%)    5 (8%)  
 D   33 (24%)    22 (36%)  
Exacerbations in the past 12 months (N)
 None   38 (28%)    31 (51%)  
 One   59 (43%)    21 (34%)  
 Two or more   40 (29%)    9 (15%)  
Smoking (N)
 Non-smokers 48 (51%) 10 (7%)   65 (44%) 5 (8%) < 0.001
 Smokers 47 (49%) 37 (27%)   56 (38%) 43 (70%)  
 Ex-smokers 0 (0%) 90 (66%) < 0.001 27 (18%) 13 (22%)  
hsCRP (mg/l) 2.02 (0.74–2.76) 2.49 (1.27–5.47) < 0.001 1.10 (0.60–2.50) 2.20 (1.10–5.50) < 0.001
Fibrinogen (g/l) 3.50 (3.10–3.80) 3.80 (3.40–4.30) < 0.001 3.20 (2.55–3.70) 3.80 (3.50–4.20) < 0.001
FVC (l) 3.35 (2.78–4.16) 2.28 (1.81–2.77) < 0.001 3.77 (3.31–4.66) 3.33 (2.58–3.78) < 0.001
FEV1 (l) 2.60 (2.12–3.17) 1.08 (0.78–1.57) < 0.001 2.96 (2.60–3.62) 1.49 (1.17–1.92) < 0.001
FEV1/FVC (%) 80.6 (76.9–87.4) 48.2 (41.1–58.2) < 0.001 79.1 (76.7–82.4) 50.6 (39.3–61.7) < 0.001
  1. Data are presented as median (interquartile range) for continuous variables and N (%) for categorical variables. Wilcoxon rank-sum test was applied to compare groups for continuous data, while the differences of frequencies for categorical variables were tested using the Fisher’s exact test. The p-value < 0.05 was considered significant
  2. FVC: forced vital capacity; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s; hsCRP: high-sensitivity C-reactive protein
  3. a ABCD assessment tool is based on the Modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) questionnaire