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Table 2 Publications on analysis of enteroviruses in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome

From: Chronic viral infections in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS)

Publication title Author Year Study participants Sample type Method Correlation assumed
Enteroviral RNA sequences detected by polymerase chain reaction in muscle of patients with post-viral fatigue syndrome Gow et al. 1991 60 CFS, 41 controls Muscle biopsies PCR Yes
Persistence of enterovirus RNA in muscle biopsy samples suggests that some cases of chronic fatigue syndrome result from a previous, inflammatory viral myopathy Bowles 1993 148 CFS, 152 controls Muscle biopsies Hybridization Yes
Simultaneous measurement of antibodies to Epstein–Barr virus, human herpesvirus 6, herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, and 14 enteroviruses in chronic fatigue syndrome: is there evidence of activation of a nonspecific polyclonal immune response? Manian 1994 20 CFS, 20 controls Serum Coxsackievirus B1, B4 antibody titer Yes
Comparison of Coxsackie B neutralisation and enteroviral PCR in chronic fatigue patients Nairn et al. 1995 100 patients, 100 controls Serum PCR, antibody in neutralisation assay Yes for PCR, not for NA
Detection of enterovirus—specific RNA in serum: the relationship to chronic fatigue Clements et al. 1995 88 patients, 126 controls Serum, buffy coat, stool PCR Yes
Phylogenetic analysis of short enteroviral sequences from patients with chronic fatigue syndrome Galbraith 1995 238 CFS, 130 controls Serum, throat swaps PCR Yes
Detection of enterovirus in human skeletal muscle from patients with chronic inflammatory muscle disease or fibromyalgia and healthy subjects Douche-Aourik et al. 2003 30 CFS/Fibromyalgia patients, 29 controls Muscle biopsies RT-PCR Yes
Enterovirus related metabolic myopathy: a postviral fatigue syndrome. Lane et al. 2003 48 CFS, 29 controls Muscle biopsies RT-PCR Yes
Chronic fatigue syndrome is associated with chronic enterovirus infection of the stomach Chia et al. 2008 165 CFS,34 controls Gastric biopsies VP-1 staining, RT-PCR Yes
Acute enterovirus infection followed by myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) and viral persistence Chia et al. 2009 3 CFS Gastric biopsies, blood VP-1 staining, RT-PCR Yes
Chronic fatigue syndrome: clinical condition associated with immune activation Landay et al. 1991 63 CFS, 40 controls Serum Coxsackievirus B4 antibodies Prevalence yes, titer not
Studies on enterovirus in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome Gow et al. 1994. 131 CFS, 101 controls (neuromuscular disorders) Muscle biopsies PCR No
No findings of enteroviruses in Swedish patients with chronic fatigue syndrome Lindh et al. 1996 29 CFS Muscle biopsies PCR No
Investigation by polymerase chain reaction of enteroviral infection in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome McArdle 1996 34 CFS Muscle biopsies PCR No
Enteroviruses and the chronic fatigue syndrome Swanink 1994 76 CFS, 76 controls Stool, serum PCR, antibodies No
Viral serologies in patients with chronic fatigue and chronic fatigue syndrome Buchwald 1996 508 CFS, 30 controls Serum Coxsackievirus B antibodies No
  1. CFS chronic fatigue syndrome, NA neutralising antibody, PCR polymerase chain reaction, RT-PCR reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction