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Table 1 Publications on analysis of human herpesvirus 6 and/or 7 in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome

From: Chronic viral infections in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS)

Publication title Author Year Study participants Sample type Method Correlation assumed
HHV-6 reactivation in chronic fatigue syndrome Josephs et al. 1991 7 patients, 2 controls PBMCs IFA, Southern blot Yes
A chronic illness characterized by fatigue, neurologic and immunologic disorders, and active human herpesvirus type 6 infection Buchwald et al. 1992 259 patients, 47 controls Serum, PBMCs PCR, ELISA Yes
Prevalence of human herpesvirus 6 variants A and B in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome Yalcin et al. 1994 13 patients, 13 controls Serum, PBMCs PCR Yes
Antibody responses to Epstein–Barr virus, human herpesvirus 6 and human herpesvirus 7 in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome Sairenji et al. 1995 20 patients, 26 controls Serum IFA Yes
Prevalence of IgM antibodies to human herpesvirus 6 early antigen (p41/38) in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome Patnaik et al. 1995 154 patients, 165 controls Serum ELISA Yes
Active HHV-6 infection in chronic fatigue syndrome patients from Italy: new data Zorzenon et al. 1996 52 patients, 51 controls Serum, PBMCs IFA, PCR Yes
Frequent HHV-6 reactivation in multiple sclerosis (MS) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients Ablashi et al. 2000 35 patients, 28 controls Serum, PBMCs ELISA, IFA Yes
Dynamics of chronic active herpesvirus-6 infection in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome: data acquisition for computer modeling Krueger et al. 2001 10 patients Serum, blood ELISA, qPCR Yes
Activation of human herpesviruses 6 and 7 in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome Chapenko et al. 2006 17 patients, 12 patients with UCF, 20 controls Plasma, serum, PBMCs nPCR, flow cytometry Yes
Association of active human herpesvirus-6, -7 and Parvovirus B19 infection with clinical outcomes in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome Chapenko et al. 2012 108 patients, 90 controls Plasma, serum ELISA, nPCR, qPCR, REA Yes
Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome and gulf war illness patients exhibit increased humoral responses to the herpesvirus-encoded dUTPase: implications in disease pathophysiology Halpin et al. 2017 74 patients, 151 controls Serum ELISA Yes
Human herpesvirus 6 and human herpesvirus 7 in chronic fatigue syndrome Di Luca et al. 1995 36 patients, 24 controls Plasma, PBMCs PCR No: HHV-7 Yes: HHV-6A
Chronic fatigue syndrome: clinical condition associated with immune activation Landay et al. 1991 63 patients, 40 controls Serum, plasma IFA No
A comprehensive immunological analysis in chronic fatigue syndrome Gupta , Vayuvegula 1991 20 patients, 20 controls PBMCs, serum FACS, IFA No
Clinical, epidemiologic, and virologic studies in four clusters of the chronic fatigue syndrome Levine et al. 1992 31 patients, 105 controls Serum IFA, western blot, PCR No
Simultaneous measurement of antibodies to Epstein–Barr virus, human herpesvirus 6, herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, and 14 enteroviruses in chronic fatigue syndrome: is there evidence of activation of a nonspecific polyclonal immune response? Manian 1994 20 patients, 20 controls Serum IFA No
Detection of human herpesvirus 6 in plasma of children with primary infection and immunosuppressed patients by polymerase chain reaction Secchiero et al. 1995 39 patients, 37 controls Plasma or serum PCR No
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS): a critical evaluation of testing for active human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) infection Wagner et al. 1996 107 patients Serum, PBMCs IFA, ELISA, nPCR No
Viral serologies in patients with chronic fatigue and chronic fatigue syndrome Buchwald et al. 1996 548 patients (CFS, CF and FM), 30 controls Serum ELISA, western blot, IFA No
Human herpesviruses in chronic fatigue syndrome Wallace 1999 76 patients, 73 controls Serum PCR No
Human herpesvirus 6 and 7 in chronic fatigue syndrome: a case–control study Reeves et al. 2000 26 patients, 50 controls Serum PCR No
No evidence of active infection with human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) or HHV-8 in chronic fatigue syndrome Enbom et al. 2000 8 patients, 7 controls Plasma, PBMCs PCR No
Markers of viral infection in monozygotic twins discordant for chronic fatigue syndrome Koelle et al. 2002 11 patients, 11 controls Plasma, PBMCs, serum ELISA, PCR No
Multiple co-infections (mycoplasma, chlamydia, human herpesvirus-6) in blood of chronic fatigue syndrome patients: association with signs and symptoms Nicolson et al. 2003 204 patients, 100 controls Serum PCR, Southern blot No
Detection of herpesviruses and parvovirus B19 in gastric and intestinal mucosa of chronic fatigue syndrome patients Fremont et al. 2009 48 patients, 35 controls Gastro-intestinal biopsies, serum qPCR No
Serological and virological investigation of the role of the herpesviruses EBV, CMV and HHV-6 in post-infective fatigue syndrome Cameron et al. 2010 20 patients, 10 controls Serum qPCR, ELISA No
No serological evidence for a role of HHV-6 infection in chronic fatigue syndrome Burbelo et al. 2012 72 patients, 59 controls Serum LIPS assay No
Human endogenous retrovirus-K18 superantigen expression and human herpesvirus-6 and human herpesvirus-7 viral loads in chronic fatigue patients Oakes et al. 2013 39 patients, 9 controls Saliva, PBMCs qPCR No
Human herpesvirus 6 and 7 are biomarkers for fatigue, which distinguish between physiological fatigue and pathological fatigue Aoki et al. 2016 97 patients, 113 controls Saliva Real-time PCR No
  1. CF chronic fatigue, CFS chronic fatigue syndrome, ELISA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, FACS fluorescence-activated cell sorting, FM fibromyalgia, IFA Immunofluorescence assay, LIPS luciferase immunoprecipitation systems, nPCR nested polymerase chain reaction, PBMCs peripheral blood mononuclear cells, PCR polymerase chain reaction, qPCR quantitative polymerase chain reaction, REA restriction endonuclease analysis, UCF unexplained chronic fatigue