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Table 2 Correlates of cord blood leptin and insulin levels

From: Cord blood leptin and insulin levels in association with mitochondrial DNA content

  Leptin Insulin
% change (SE) p-value % change (SE) p-value
Maternal characteristics
 Maternal age, years 8.4% (4.4) 0.06 3.8% (4.2) 0.36
 Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, kg/m2 13.6% (4.4) 0.002 5.6% (4.2) 0.19
 Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI
  < 18.5 kg/m2 − 38.5% (31.9) 0.08 14.9% (30.6) 0.60
  18.5–25 kg/m2 Ref Ref
  25–30 kg/m3 24.3% (11.7) 0.05 17.7% (11.3) 0.13
  > 30 kg/m2 38.9% (16.7) 0.03 14.7% (16.1) 0.36
 Smoking during pregnancy − 9.5% (16) 0.50 − 3.8% (15.2) 0.78
 Highest educational level in the family
  Lower high school − 6.4% (18.9) 0.70 25% (17.8) 0.18
  Higher high school − 8.1% (10.6) 0.40 7.7% (10) 0.43
  College/University Ref Ref
 Parity
  0 children Ref Ref
  1 child − 2.2% (10.3) 0.82 6.1% (9.7) 0.52
  ≥ 2 children − 2.1% (13.1) 0.86 25.8% (12.3) 0.05
Newborn characteristics
 Boys − 37% (8.7) <0.0001 − 11.8% (8.7) 0.13
 Ethnicity
  Belgian Ref Ref
  European 0.3% (17.4) 0.98 10.1% (16.2) 0.52
  Non-European 2.3% (12.2) 0.84 34.7% (11.3) 0.01
 Gestational age, weeks
  Birth weight, grams 22% (4.2) 0.03 9.3% (4.2) 0.03
  Large for gestational age 68.2% (14.6) 0.0002 39.7% (13.9) 0.01
  Small for gestational age − 23.5% (17) 0.09 − 34.6% (16.2) 0.01
  1. The mean (SE) effects are represented as a relative % change in the cord blood hormone levels for a SD change in the continuous variable or compared to a reference category for the class variables