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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population (n = 236) and their association with cord blood mtDNA content

From: Cord blood leptin and insulin levels in association with mitochondrial DNA content

Characteristic Mean (SD) or number (%) Mean effect (SE) p-value
Maternal characteristics
 Maternal age, years 30.2 (4.1) 1.23% (1.63) 0.45
 Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, kg/m2 23.7 (4.1) − 1.71% (1.65) 0.30
 Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI
  < 18.5 kg/m2 7 (2.5%) 10.21% (11.08) 0.36
  18.5–25 kg/m2 163 (69.1%) Ref
  25–30 kg/m3 46 (19.5%) 0.82% (4.31) 0.85
  > 30 kg/m2 21 (8.9%) − 1.21% (6.03) 0.84
 Smoking during pregnancy 23 (9.8%) 7.79% (5.67) 0.17
 Highest educational level in household
  Lower high school 17 (7.2%) 4.82% (6.66) 0.47
  Higher high school 65 (27.5%) − 0.15% (3.80) 0.97
  College/University 154 (65.3%) Ref
 Paritya
  0 children 105 (44.5%) Ref
  1 child 88 (37.3%) 7.96% (3.68) 0.04
  ≥ 2 children 43 (18.2%) 7.04% (4.63) 0.13
Newborn characteristics
 Boys 121 (51.3%) 5.96% (3.32) 0.08
 Ethnicityb
  Belgian 172 (72.9%) Ref
  European 20 (8.5%) 3.41% (6.05) 0.57
  Non-European 44 (18.6%) 12.42% (4.29) 0.01
 Gestational age, weeks 39.3 (1.3) − 5.45% (1.67) 0.001
 Birth weight, grams 3449 (429) − 1.11% (1.64) 0.50
 Large for gestational age 26 (11%) 0.98% (5.42) 0.85
 Small for gestational age 19 (8%) − 3.58% (6.26) 0.55
 Leptin, µg/lc, d 5.6 (3.4–9.3) 1.38% (1.50) 0.36
 Insulin, pmol/lc, d 27.3 (18–40.5) 1.94% (0.62) 0.002
  1. The mean (SE) effects are represented as a  % change in the cord blood mtDNA content for a SD change in the continuous variable or compared to a reference category for the class variables
  2. aParity is indicated based on the number of children before the child in our study
  3. bEthnicity was defined by country of birth of the grandparents of the child
  4. cFor leptin and insulin the geometric mean (25th–75th percentile) is given
  5. dEffect sizes for a interquartile range increase in the mean hormone levels