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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients in the atrial fibrillation (AF) and sinus rhythm (SR) groups

From: YKL-40 is highly expressed in the epicardial adipose tissue of patients with atrial fibrillation and associated with atrial fibrosis

Variables SR group (n = 36) AF group (n = 28) χ2/t P
Demographics
 Age (year) 67.8 ± 8.8 66.5 ± 8.1 0.605 0.547
 Gender (percent male) 20 (55.6%) 16 (57.1%) 0.016 0.899
 BMI (kg/m2) 23.8 ± 2.9 25.6 ± 3.6 1.652 0.104
 Smoking 10 (27.8%) 8 (28.6%) 0.005 0.944
NYHA functional class    2.709 0.439
 I 5 (13.9%) 3 (10.7%)   
 II 12 (33.3%) 12 (42.9%)   
 III 16 (44.4%) 8 (28.6%)   
 IV 3 (8.3%) 5 (17.9%)   
Echocardiography
 LVEF (%) 58.8 ± 4.4 59.3 ± 5.0 0.391 0.697
 LAD (mm) 37.9 ± 5.8 43.8 ± 3.9 4.547 < 0.001
Comorbidities
 Hypertension 10 (27.8%) 6 (21.4%) 0.339 0.561
 T2DM 12 (33.3%) 8 (28.6%) 0.166 0.683
 Stroke 2 (5.6%) 4 (14.3%) 1.413 0.235
 COPD 4 (11.1%) 4 (14.3%) 0.145 0.703
Serum YKL-40 (μg/l) 87.0 ± 36.6 101.5 ± 41.5 1.475 0.145
  1. BMI body mass index, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, LAD left atrial diameter, T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, NYHA New York Heart Association