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Table 1 Selected potential biomarkers for immunotherapy

From: Perspectives in melanoma: Meeting report from the Melanoma Bridge (30 November–2 December, 2017, Naples, Italy)

  Basis Challenges
PD-L1 IHC approach to measuring PD-L1 expression on tumour and immune cells Variability in assays, antibodies and tumour microenvironment
CD8+ T cells PD-1/PD-L1 expression on CD8+ T cells predicts response to PD-1 agents Optimal cut-off points, scoring metrics and agreement on magnitude of change needed for meaningful prediction of response
Tumour mutation load High mutation load resulting from various factors correlated with response to checkpoint inhibitors in exceptional responders Availability of adequate tissue for sequencing; whole exome sequencing expensive and slow turnaround time vs. other clinical assays
Neoantigen burden Predict clinical benefit to ipilimumab and PD-1 blockade in melanoma and lung cancer As above
Gene expression profiling IFN-induced signatures may predict response to checkpoint inhibitors Sizable tissue collection needed to validate testing and training sets