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Table 1 Correction of immune dysfunctions with natural substances

From: The influence of diet on anti-cancer immune responsiveness

Category name Active compound Effect or molecular target Ref.
Prebiotics (fruit and vegetables) Vitamins A, B1, B2, B6, B3, B12, D, E (tocopherols: α, β, γ, δ-tocopherol family (α T, β T, γ T, δ T) and α, β, γ, δ-tocotrienol (α TE, β TE, γ TE, δ TE)); MUFA, PUFA (ω-9, ω-6); iron and zinc; phytosterols; inuline; fiber ↓Bcl-2, ↑BAX, ↓NF-kB, ↓Cyclin D1, ↓MMP-9, ↓iNOS, ↑Caspase, ↑GPX1, ↓IRAK1, ↓IL-1, ↓CAT, ↓CCL5, ↓DUOX2, ↑SOD1, ↓COX2, ↓TNF-α, ↓IL1, ↓IL6, ↓IL8 [17, 18, 45, 149,150,151,152,153,154,155,156,157,158,159,160,161,162]
Probiotics Bacteroides, Clostridium, Faecalibacterium, Eubacterium, Peptidococcus, Peptidostreptococcus and Bifidobacterium Restoration of innate and adaptative immunity; correction of the altered intestinal microbiota; T cell differentiation toward regulatory T (Treg) cells and Th2 phenotypes; anti-inflammatory activity; stimulation of the GALT, MLNs, ILFs, TLRs, expression of α- and β-defensins, cathericidin LL-37, lectins, and other antimicrobial proteins [20, 88, 91, 101,102,103,104,105,106,107,108,109,110, 114, 119,120,121,122,123,124,125,126,127,128,129,130,131,132,133]
Postbiotics Short chain fatty acids, p40 molecule, becteriocin, Lactocepin secreted by L. paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, S-layer protein A and polysaccharide A produced by Bacteroides fragilis Improved epithelial barrier function, inactive IP-10, increased production of mucins by the goblet cells, decreased inflammatory process, down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine production by intestinal epithelial cells [125, 126, 134]
Poliphenols Resveratrol, pterostilbene, and piceatannol ↓Survivin, ↓cyclin D1, ↓cyclin E, ↑p53, ↓Bcl-2, ↑BAX, ↑Caspase, ↓Bcl-XL, ↓CIAP, ↓Egr-1, ↓PKC, ↓PKD, ↓IL-6, ↓VEGF, ↓IL-1, ↓IL-8, ↓CYP1A1, ↓5-LOX, ↑HO-1, ↑Nrf2, ↓COX2, ↑SIRT2, ↓CCL5, ↓TNF-α ↓IL-1β, ↓NF-kB, ↑IL10, ↓IL-1β, ↓IL-1β, ↑IL10 [20, 171,172,173,174,175,176,177,178,179,180,181, 184,185,186,187,188, 195,196,197,198,199,200,201]
Hydroxytirosol ↓CCL5, ↓UCP2, ↓Bcl-2, ↓DUOX2, ↓IRAK1, CAT, ↓NF-kB, ↑SOD1 [163, 164]
  1. B cell lymphoma 2 gene (Bcl-2), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB), matrix metalloprotease (MMP), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1), copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase (CCL5), superoxide DISMUTASE (SOD1), interleukin (IL), gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT), smaller Peyer’s patches and mesenteric lymphonodes (MLNs), isolated lymphoid follicles (ILFs), Toll-like receptors (TLRs), Bcl-2-associated X (BAX), B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-XL), early growth response protein 1 (EGR1), protein kinase C (PKC), protein kinase D (PKD), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), lipoxygenase (LOX), NF-E2-related factor (Nrf), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), sirtuin (SIRT), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), dual oxidase e gene (DUOX2), interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 2 gene (IRAK1), catalase (CAT), C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL1/2)