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Table 3 Summary of large spearman’s rho (r s ) correlations (> .5) between clinical change and microbial or lactate change variables in males

From: Open-label pilot for treatment targeting gut dysbiosis in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome: neuropsychological symptoms and sex comparisons

Microbial count and lactate change Clinical change r s p n Direction of change in bacteria associated with clinical improvement
Bacteroides Sleep quality—PSQI − .758 .011 10 Increase
General fatigue—MFI − .738 .004 13 Increase
Stress—DASS − .701 .011 12 Increase
Total symptoms—SSH − .600 .067 10 Increase
Mood disturbance—POMS total − .573 .066 11 Increase
Actigraphy wake after sleep onset − .529 .043 15 Increase
Planning—SWM—strategy .588 .017 16 Decrease
Bifidobacterium Sleep quality—PSQI − .681 .030 10 Increase
General fatigue—MFI − .602 .030 13 Increase
Anxiety—DASS − .567 .043 13 Increase
  Visual learning—PAL—total errors − .529 .035 16 Increase
Clostridium Total symptoms—SSH .582 .078 10 Decrease
Verbal fluency—COWAT corrected scorea .550 .027 16 Decrease
Story memory—LM immediatea .522 .038 16 Decrease
Processing speed—RVP mean latency .507 .045 16 Decrease
Enterococcus General fatigue—MFI − .516 .071 13 Increase
Lactobacillus Actigraphy sleep onset latency .610 .016 15 Decrease
Attention—RVP A′a − .571 .021 16 Increase
Actigraphy sleep efficiencya .512 .051 15 Decrease
Streptococcus Diary sleep onset latency − .656 .006 16 Increase
d:l Lactate ratio Actigraphy sleep onset latency .802 .001 14 Decrease
Total symptoms—SSH .567 .112 9 Decrease
General fatigue—MFI .532 .061 13 Decrease
Mood disturbance—POMS total .509 .110 11 Decrease
  1. N.B. Lower scores on clinical outcomes = improvement
  2. aVariables with reversed correlations (i.e., multiplied by − 1) to allow for consistent interpretation