Skip to main content

Table 2 Univariate analysis of survival outcomes of 123 patients with hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

From: The prognostic value of preoperative prognostic nutritional index in patients with hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: a retrospective study

Variables Overall survival (OS) Progression-free survival (PFS) Locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFFS) Distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS)
HR (95% CI)a P value HR (95% CI)a P value HR (95% CI)a P value HR (95% CI)a P value
Age
 ≤ 60 Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 > 60 1.538 (0.882–2.681) 0.129 1.427 (0.197–10.338) 0.725 0.782 (0.355–1.723) 0.541 2.035 (1.147–3.611) 0.015
Sex
 Male Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 Female 1.980 (0.271–14.445) 0.500 1.467 (0.202–10.632) 0.705 2.782 (0.377–20.549) 0.316 1.963 (0.269–14.322) 0.506
Smoking history
 No Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 Yes 1.480 (0.746–2.934) 0.262 1.460 (0.796–2.677) 0.221 1.385 (0.606–3.166) 0.440 0.910 (0.482–1.716) 0.770
Alcohol history
 No Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 Yes 0.950 (0.546–1.654) 0.857 1.029 (0.617–1.715) 0.914 1.837 (0.837–4.035) 0.130 0.744 (0.418–1.322) 0.313
Tumor differentiation
 Well/moderate Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 Poor 1.143 (0.659–1.981) 0.634 1.131 (0.680–1.881) 0.635 0.940 (0.461–1.913) 0.864 1.376 (0.771–2.456) 0.280
Primary tumor site
 Pyriform sinus Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 Posterior wall/postcricoid 3.652 (1.885–7.077) 0.000 3.274 (1.789–5.994) 0.000 4.508 (2.075–9.793) 0.000 2.451 (1.168–5.141) 0.018
pT classificationb
 T1–T2 Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 T3–T4 1.643 (0.963–2.802) 0.068 1.906 (1.171–3.102) 0.009 3.258 (1.687–6.294) 0.000 1.452 (0.811–2.598) 0.209
pN classificationb
 N0 Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 N1–N3 1.242 (0.561–2.747) 0.593 1.416 (0.676–2.966) 0.357 0.613 (0.279–1.348) 0.224 4.701 (1.141–19.380) 0.032
pTNM stagingb
 I–II Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 III–IV 1.699 (0.678–4.262) 0.258 1.819 (0.785–4.212) 0.163 1.060 (0.412–2.729) 0.904 4.217 (1.023–17.378) 0.046
No. of metastatic LN
 ≤ 3 Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 > 3 1.479 (0.780–2.807) 0.231 1.463 (0.822–2.606) 0.196 1.000 (0.415–2.406) 0.999 2.168 (1.161–4.046) 0.015
LND
 ≤ 0.06 Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 > 0.06 1.886 (1.107–3.214) 0.020 2.010 (1.236–3.268) 0.005 1.319 (0.686–2.537) 0.406 3.020 (1.661–5.493) 0.000
ECS of LN
 Negative Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 Positive 2.222 (1.243–3.971) 0.007 1.710 (0.974–3.000) 0.062 1.026 (0.427–2.468) 0.954 2.102 (1.114–3.967) 0.022
Surgical margin
 Negative Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 Positive 3.695 (1.656–8.244) 0.001 2.374 (1.078–5.228) 0.032 3.466 (1.336–8.991) 0.011 1.853 (0.662–5.191) 0.240
Perineural invasion
 Negative Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 Positive 1.645 (0.775–3.491) 0.195 1.133 (0.540–2.376) 0.741 0.520 (0.12402.169) 0.369 1.231 (0.523–2.900) 0.634
Lymphovascular invasion
 Negative Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 Positive 1.779 (0.951–3.328) 0.071 1.406 (0.778–2.542) 0.259 0.483 (0.148–1.581) 0.229 1.564 (0.795–3.075) 0.195
Adjuvant treatment
 No Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 RT alone 2.584 (0.620–10.770) 0.192 3.098 (0.745–12.884) 0.120 1.944 (0.461–8.193) 0.365 4.177 (0.567–30.747) 0.160
 CRT 2.125 (0.490–9.212) 0.314 3.301 (0.777–14.015) 0.105 0.884 (0.188–4.170) 0.877 4.830 (0.644–36.237) 0.126
PNI
 > 52.0 Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 ≤ 52.0 2.804 (1.529–5.140) 0.001 2.202 (1.313–3.693) 0.003 2.526 (1.217–5.241) 0.013 2.177 (1.185–4.000) 0.012
  1. Italic values indicate significance of p value (p < 0.05)
  2. CI, confidence interval; CRT, combined chemoradiotherapy; ECS, extracapsular spread; HR, hazard ratio; LN, lymph node; LND, lymph node density; PNI, prognostic nutritional index; pT classification, pathological tumor classification; pN classification, pathological nodal classification; Ref, reference; RT, radiotherapy; TNM, tumor-node-metastasis
  3. aCox proportional hazards model. Bolding shows P value < 0.05
  4. bTumor-node-metastasis staging system proposed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (7th edition)