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Table 2 Spice derived compounds and their mechanism of actions against different chronic diseases

From: Chronic diseases, inflammation, and spices: how are they linked?

Compound Chronic diseases Mechanism of action References
1,8-cineole Alzheimer’s disease ↓NOS-2, ↓COX-2, ↓NF-κB [67]
Bronchial asthma ↓PGE2, ↓LTB4 [186]
Colitis ↓Myeloperoxidase [38]
COPD [69]
Pancreatitis ↓NF-κB [66]
Ulceration ↓Myeloperoxidase [38]
6-gingerol Allergic rhinitis ↓T cell activity [75]
Alzheimer’s disease ↑Nrf2 [72]
Colorectal cancer ↑NAG-1 [70]
Diabetes ↓VEGF [71]
Osteoporosis ↓TNF-α [187]
Steatohepatitis ↓NF-κB, ↓TNF-α, ↓IL-6 [73]
α-Pinene Acute pancreatitis ↓TNF-α, ↓IL-1β, ↓IL-6 [78]
Arthritis ↓JNK, ↓iNOS, ↓MMP-1, ↓MMP-13 [188]
Rhinitis ↓IKK-β, ↓Caspase-1 [76]
Allicin Ankylosing spondylitis ↓IL-6, ↓IL-8, ↓TNF-α [189]
Alzheimer’s disease ↑Nrf2 [190]
Chronic kidney disease ↑Nrf2 [191]
Gastric cancer ↑G2/M arrest, ↑ER stress  [192]
Glioblastoma multiforme ↓ERK [193]
Hypercholesterolemia ↓TNF-α, ↓NF-κB [194]
Recurrent aphthous ulcer ↓TNF-α [195]
Type 1 diabetes [196]
Ulcerative colitis ↓IL-6, ↓STAT3 [18]
Anethole Breast cancer ↓NF-κB [197]
Bronchial dysplasia [198]
Capsaicin Atherosclerosis ↑TRPV1 [199]
Alzheimer’s disease ↑Synapsin I; ↑PSD93 [112]
Bladder cancer ↓FOXO3a [110]
Cholangiocarcinoma ↑PI3K/Akt/mTOR [200]
Colon cancer ↑Caspase-8, -9, -3 [201]
Gastrointestinal disorders [202]
Lung cancer ↓E2F [114]
Cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis ↑TRPV1 [199]
Pancreatitis ↓ERK, ↓c-Jun, ↓Hedgehog [203]
Prostate cancer ↓p27 [113]
Carvacrol Arthritis ↓Myeloperoxidase [204]
Asthma ↓IL-4, ↓TGF-β, ↓IL-17 [205]
Atherosclerosis ↓MAPK [206]
Colon cancer ↓iNOS, ↓IL-1β [207]
COPD ↑IL-8 [31]
Gastric ulcers ↓Prostanoids [208]
Intestinal mucositis ↑TRPA1 receptor [209]
Pancreatitis ↓AST, ↓ALT, ↓LDH [210]
Periodontitis ↓Myeloperoxidase [211]
Cardamom Colon cancer ↓COX-2, ↓iNOS [212]
Forestomach cancer ↑GSH, ↓LDH [213]
Carnosol Brain damage by chronic stress ↑MDA [214]
Colon cancer [215]
Lymphoma [215]
Cinnamon Arthritis ↓IL-2,-4, ↓IFNγ [120]
Alzheimer’s disease ↑p21rac [121]
Colitis ↓COX-2 [216]
Diabetes ↓AP-1 [217]
Hyperglycemia ↑PPARγ [218]
Inflammatory disorders ↓p38, ↓JNK, ↓ERK1/2, ↓STAT4 [219]
Melanoma ↓AP-1 [217]
Multiple sclerosis ↑Tregs [119]
Parkinson’s disease ↓ Aβ polypeptide [122]
Coriander Alzheimer’s disease ↓Aβ42-induced ROS, ↓ERK [220, 221]
Atherosclerosis [222]
Colitis [223]
Dermatitis ↓IgE, ↓TNF-α, ↓INFγ, ↓IL-1,-4,-13 [224]
Diabetes ↑Insulin release [225]
Rheumatism [226]
Crocin Alzheimer’s disease ↓Aβ peptide  [227]
Asthma ↓p-ERK, ↓p-JNK, ↓p-p38 [228]
Colitis ↓INFγ, ↓COX-2 [16]
Diabetes ↓TNF-α, ↓IL-1β [229]
Liver cancer ↓NF-κB, ↓TNF-α, ↓IL-6, -10 [230]
Rheumatoid arthritis ↓iNOS, ↓TNF-α, ↓IL-1β, -6 [231]
Curcumin Alzheimer’s disease ↑PI3K, ↑Akt [87]
Asthma ↑Nrf2/HO-1 [89]
Atherosclerosis ↓IL-1β, -6, ↓TNF-α, ↑PPARγ [232]
Cancer ↓Multiple pathways [160, 161]
Chagas myocarditis ↓NFAT/COX-2/PGE2 [233]
COPD ↓p66Shc [234]
Colitis ↓STAT3 [235]
Diabetes ↓NF-κB, ↓NO [236]
Epilepsy ↓IL-1β, ↓IL-6, ↓TNF-α [237]
Gastric ulcer ↓Acetylation of histone H3 [238]
Hepatitis ↓PGC-1α [239]
Irritable bowel disease ↓p38 MAPK, ↓IL-1β, -10 [240]
Lupus nephritis ↓IgG1, ↓IgG2a [241]
Oral lichen planus [240]
Psoriasis ↓TNF-α, ↓IFN-γ, ↓IL-2, -12, -22, [242]
Prostatitis ↓IL-8, ↓TNF-α [88]
Ulcerative proctitis [240]
Uveitis [240]
Diallyl sulphide Asthma ↑Nrf2 [79]
Colon cancer [82]
Prostate cancer ↑Caspases-3,-9,-10, ↓Bcl-2 [84]
Osteoarthritis ↓MMP-1,-3,-13, ↓IL-1β [81]
Skin cancer ↑Apoptosis [83]
Diosgenin Alzheimer’s disease ↑1,25D3-MARRS [243]
Breast cancer ↓Vav2 [93]
Chronic myeloid leukemia ↓PI3K/Akt/mTOR [94]
Diabetes [244, 245]
Graves’ disease ↓IGF-1, ↓NF-κB, ↓cyclin D1, ↓PCNA [246]
Hepatitis C ↓STAT3 [96]
Liver cancer ↑Caspase-3, -8,-9 [97]
Osteoarthritis ↓IL-1β [95]
Osteoporosis ↓RANKL, ↑OPG [247]
Prostate cancer ↓PI3K/Akt/mTOR [98]
Eugenol Asthma ↓NF-κB [101]
Atherosclerosis ↓ALP, ↓LDH, ↓HMG-CoA [248]
Breast cancer ↓E2F1/survivin [103]
Cervical cancer ↓Bcl-2, ↓COX-2, ↓IL-1β [102]
Depression ↑MTT-III [249]
Diabetes ↓AST, ↓ALT, ↓LDH, ↓ALP [100]
Gastric cancer ↓NF-κB [104]
Hepatic steatosis and fibrosis ↓SREBP1 [250]
Hyperglycemia ↓Glycogen phosphorylase b [251]
Skin cancer ↓NF-κB, ↓iNOS, ↓IL-6, ↓TNF-α, ↓PGE2 [252]
Garcinol Allergy ↓STAT3 [106]
Breast cancer ↓Caspase-3, ↓NF-κB [125]
Cardiovascular diseases ↓STAT3 [106]
Colon cancer ↓PK 1/2, PI3K/Akt/p70 ribosomal S6 kinase [123]
Diabetes ↓STAT3 [106]
Head and neck cancer ↓STAT3, ↓NF-κB [126]
Lung cancer ↓p38-MAPK [127]
Oral squamous cell carcinoma ↓NF-κB [116]
Pancreatic cancer ↓Wnt/β-catenin, ↓miR-200s [128]
Prostate cancer ↑mTOR, ↑Akt [253]
Limonene Asthma ↓IL-5, -13, ↓MCP-1 [254]
Breast cancer [255]
Colitis ↓NF-κB [256]
Colorectal cancer [255]
Skin cancer ↓Ras-ERK [257]
Linalool Diabetes ↓TGF-β1 [258]
Skin cancer ↓IL-6, ↓COX-2, ↓VEGF, ↓Bcl-2 [259]
Leukemia ↑p53, ↑p21, ↑p27, ↑p16, ↑p18 [260]
Cervical cancer ↑p53, ↑p21, ↑p27, ↑p16, ↑p18 [260]
Colon cancer ↑Hydroxy radical [261]
Menthol Pancreatic cancer ↓Focal-adhesion kinase [262]
Depression ↑IL-1β,-6, ↑TNF-α [263]
Skin cancer ↓NF-κB, ↓ERK, ↓p38 [264]
Napkin dermatitis [265]
Neuropathic pain ↑TRPM8 [266]
Macelignan Alzheimer’s disease [267]
Asthma ↓IL-4, ↓GATA3 [268]
Type 1 allergy ↓Akt, ↓TNF-α, ↓MAPK, ↓c-Jun [269]
Piperine Alzheimer’s disease [270]
Arthritis ↑IL-10 [151]
Asthma ↓IL-4, -5, ↓NF-κB [150]
Breast cancer ↑p53, ↓MMP-9,-2, ↓c-Myc, ↓VEGF [271]
Chronic gastritis ↓IL-1β, ↓IFN-γ, ↓IL-6, ↓iNOS [272]
Colorectal cancer [273]
Depression ↑BDNF [274]
Endometritis ↓NF-κB, ↓MAPK [148]
Fibrosarcoma ↓MMP-9 [275]
Gastric cancer ↓STAT3 [154]
Parkinson’s disease ↓IL-1β, ↓TNF-α [276]
Triple negative breast cancer ↓Survivin, ↓p65 [277]
Ulcerative colitis [278]
Quercetin Arthritis ↓NF-κB, ↓1β, ↓MCP [139]
Atherosclerosis ↑Akt [147]
Atopic dermatitis ↓JAK-STAT [142]
Breast cancer ↓Twist [140]
Diabetes mellitus [143]
Hepatitis ↑Nrf2 [138]
Inflammatory bowel disease ↑GSH [141]
Periodontitis ↓IL-1β, ↓TNF-α, ↓RANKL, ↓iCAM-1 [279]
Psoriasis [144]
Rosmarinic acid Asthma ↓ERK, ↓JNK, ↓p38MAPK [19]
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ↓HNE [280]
Colitis ↓NF-κB, ↓STAT3 [281]
Colorectal cancer ↓IL-6/STAT3 [282]
Gastric cancer ↓IL-6/STAT3 [283]
Hepatocellular carcinoma ↓NF-κB [284]
Leukemia [285]
Neuropathic pain ↓COX-2, ↓PGE2, ↓IL-1β, ↓MMP-2 [286]
Osteoporosis ↓NFATc1 [287]
Pancreatitis ↓NF-κB [288]
Psoriasis ↓IL-1β, ↓IL-6, -8, ↓CCL20, ↓TNF-α [289]
Rhinoconjunctivitis ↓iCAM-1, ↓VCAM-1, ↓COX-2, ↓MIP-2 [290]
Sesamin Asthma ↓IκB-α, ↓NF-κB [291]
Atherosclerosis ↓MCP-1, ↓IL-1α, ↓IL-6, ↓CXCL-16 [292]
Breast cancer ↓VEGF, ↓MMP-9 [293]
Diabetes ↓FBS, ↓HbA1C, ↓TNF-α [294]
Gall bladder carcinoma ↓NF-κB-IL-6-Stat3-Twist [295]
Osteoarthritis ↑Nrf2 [296]
Prostate cancer ↓p38-MAPK, ↓NF-κB [297]
Sulforaphane Alzheimer disease ↑NLRP3 [298]
Atherosclerosis [299]
Breast cancer ↓Bcl-2, ↑Caspase-3,-9 [158]
Cardiovascular diseases ↑Nrf2 [155]
Colorectal cancer ↑AP-1 [158]
Diabetes ↓RAGE [157]
Lung cancer ↓Bcl-2, ↑Caspase-3, ↑Bax [158]
Multiple sclerosis ↑Nrf2 [159]
Tocopherol Atherosclerosis ↓IL-6,-10, ↓MCP-1, ↓TNF-α [300]
Colitis ↓IL-6 [301]
Colon cancer ↓8-HDOG, ↓γ-H2AX [302]
Lung cancer ↓8-HDOG, ↓γ-H2AX [302]
Mammary hyperplasia ↓PCNA, ↓COX-2, ↑PPARγ, ↑Nrf2 [303]
Thymol Asthma ↓NF-κB [304]
Endometritis ↓TNF-α, ↑IL-1β, ↑iNOS, ↑COX-2 [305]
Gastric ulcer ↑ PGEs, ↑ATP K(+) channels [306]
Mastitis ↓IκBα, ↓NF-κB, ↓ERK, ↓JNK [307]
Thymoquinone Allergic conjunctivitis ↓Eosinophils, ↓IgE, ↓histamine [133]
Asthma ↓CD31, ↓α-SMA [131]
Bladder cancer ↓NF-κB, ↓XIAP [134]
Cholangiocarcinoma ↓PI3K/Akt, ↓NF-κB [308]
Depression ↓TBARS, ↑GSH [309]
Diabetes mellitus ↓p44/42, ↓p38-MAPKs [310]
Gastric cancer ↓STAT3, ↓JAK2, ↓c-Src [137]
Lung cancer ↓PCNA, ↓CD1, ↓MMP-2, ↓ERK1/2 [135]
Multiple myeloma ↓Ki-67, ↓VEGF, ↓Bcl-2, ↓p65 [311]
Myeloid leukemia ↓NF-κB, ↓CD1, ↓COX-2, ↓MMP-9 [312]
Osteoarthritis ↓IL-1β-induced MMP-1,-3,-13 [130]
Ovarian cancer ↑pH2AX, ↓NF-κB [136]
Rheumatoid arthritis ↓ASK1 [132, 313]
Rhinosinusitis [314]
Ursolic acid Asthma ↓IL-5, -13 [315]
Colitis ↓NF-κB [316]
Prostate cancer ↑Caspase-3,-9, ↓ROCK/PTEN [317]
Rheumatoid arthritis ↓PGE2 [318]