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Table 2 Comparison of the clinical features between the clusters derived from metabolic profiling of the EBC

From: Exhaled breath condensate metabolome clusters for endotype discovery in asthma

Variable Cluster 1 (n = 41) Cluster 2 (n = 11) Cluster 3 (n = 9) p value
Age (months) 113.98 ± 34.53 123.45 ± 39.61 123.44 ± 48.95 0.71
Male 9 (21.95%) 11 (100%) 4 (44.44%) 0.053
BMI 16.09 ± 3.22 15.08 ± 3.94 15.70 ± 1.91 0.66
Age of onset (months) 33.74 ± 33.84 51.09 ± 47.33 28.67 ± 22.97 0.41
Atopy present* 19 (57.57%) 6 (75%) 5 (62.5%) 0.66
Both maternal and paternal family history present 25 (60.09%) 8 (72.73%) 9 (100%) 0.06
FEV1% predicted 89.44 ± 17.13 81.36 ± 16.24 84.67 ± 15.12 0.34
TLC (× 103 cells/μL) 9.28 ± 3.33 8.79 ± 1.60 9.42 ± 2.24 0.70
% Eosinophils 3.69 ± 2.52 6.54 ± 12.45 2.56 ± 0.53 0.024
% Polymorphs 55.80 ± 13.4 54.64 ± 7.53 63.89 ± 6.15 0.01
ESR mm/h 20.07 ± 9.25 17.82 ± 4.04 21.22 ± 8.90 0.39
FeNO (ppb) 18.73 ± 12.23 23.36 ± 14.12 27.67 ± 29.16 0.47
Corticosteroid use 33 (80.49%) 7 (63.36%) 6 (66.67%) 0.41
Exacerbation ratio 0.15 ± 0.17 0.31 ± 0.24 0.27 ± 0.16 0.018
  1. Data are presented as mean ± SD or frequency (%)
  2. BMI body mass index, FEV1 forced expiratory volume in 1 s, FeNO exhaled nitric oxide fraction, ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate, TLC total leukocyte count, Polymorphs polymorphonuclear leukocyte
  3. p values are obtained from either ANOVA, kruskal–Wallis or Chi squared test
  4. * Skin prick test was possible only in some children