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Table 4 Multivariate Cox regression analysis of factors associated with CKD incidence by gender, Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (1999–2014)

From: Application of survival tree analysis for exploration of potential interactions between predictors of incident chronic kidney disease: a 15-year follow-up study

Variables HRs 95% Confidence interval p-value
Men
 Age (years) 1.04 1.03–1.05 < 0.001
 eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2) 0.90 0.89–0.91 < 0.001
 FPG (mmol/l) 1.10 1.05–1.16 < 0.001
 DBP (mmHg) 1.02 1.01–1.03 < 0.001
 TC (mmol/l) 0.89 0.83–0.96 0.0025
 Waist circumference (cm) 0.98 0.97–0.99 0.016
 Hip circumference (cm) 1.02 1.00–1.03 0.075
 Heart rate (beats/min) 0.99 0.99–1.00 0.093
 Education
  Level 1 (illiterate) Reference   
  Level 2 (< 9 years) 1.18 0.83–1.67 0.34
  Level 3 (9–12 years) 1.24 0.87–1.78 0.23
  Level 4 (> 12 years) 1.56 1.06–2.28 0.021
 Marital status
  Married Reference   
  Single 1.06 0.77–1.47 0.70
  Divorced/widowed 2.04 1.09–3.84 0.025
 FH–CVD in female relatives
  No Reference   
  Yes 1.25 0.97–1.62 0.080
 PAL
  Inactivea Reference   
  Active 1.21 1.03–1.42 0.016
 Smoking
  Never Reference   
  Past 1.06 0.87–1.30 0.51
  Current 1.24 1.03–1.48 0.017
 Use of blood glucose lowering drugs
  No Reference   
  Yes 1.59 1.08–2.35 0.017
 Use of aspirin
  No Reference   
  Yes 0.84 0.67–1.04 0.116
Women
 Age (years) 1.02 1.02–1.03 < 0.001
 eGFR (mL/min/10.73 m2) 0.91 0.91–0.92 < 0.001
 FPG (mmol/L) 1.05 1.02–1.08 < 0.001
 Heart rate (beats/min) 0.99 0.98–0.99 < 0.001
 Waist circumference (cm) 0.99 0.98–0.99 0.002
 SBP (mmHg) 1.01 1.00–1.01 0.028
 Wrist circumference (cm) 1.05 1.00–1.01 0.119
 FHD in first-degree relatives
  No Reference   
  Yes 0.90 0.79–1.01 0.08
 Prevalence CVD
  No Reference   
  Yes 1.35 0.99–1.82 0.048
  1. The Stepwise Cox PH regression model using AIC as model selection approach was used to identify significant predictors of incident CKD by calculating multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CI
  2. TLGS Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, PH proportional hazard, AIC Akaike information criteria, TLGS Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, FPG fasting plasma glucose, TC total cholesterol, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, FH-CVD family history of premature cardiovascular disease, FHD family history of diabetes mellitus, PAL physical activity level, CVD cardiovascular disease
  3. aDoing exercise or labor less than three times a week or performing activities achieving < 600 metabolic equivalent of task (MET)