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Table 8 Distribution of autoantibodies and cytokines in integrative clusters

From: Cytokine and autoantibody clusters interaction in systemic lupus erythematosus

Biomarker Neutral (n = 41) Chemotactic/APLA (n = 13) IFNα/dsDNA (n = 13) p-value
Autoantibodies
 RF 15 (37) 2 (15) 7 (54) 0.121
 CCP3 1 (2) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.724
 TPOAb 4 (10) 2 (15) 1 (8) 0.792
 TgAb 3 (7) 0 (0) 2 (15) 0.327
 dsDNA 15 (37) 8 (61) 9 (69) 0.065
 ACA-IgM 3 (7) 4 (31) 4 (31) 0.041
 ACA-IgG 0 (0) 10 (77) 2 (15) < 0.0001*
 β2GP1IgM 0 (0) 6 (46) 1 (8) < 0.0001*
 β2GP1IgG 0 (0) 4 (31) 2 (15) 0.0021
 ANAs 35 (85) 11 (85) 11 (85) 0.996
 RNP 10 (24) 8 (61) 7 (54) 0.021
 Ro 14 (34) 4 (31) 8 (61) 0.168
 La 4 (10) 0 (0) 1 (8) 0.506
 Sm 5 (12) 3 (23) 4 (31) 0.271
Cytokines
 IL-2 0 (0) 1 (8) 1 (8) 0.196
 IL-4 0 (0) 0 (0) 4 (31) 0.0001*
 IL-5 0 (0) 1 (8) 5 (38) 0.0001*
 IL-6 7 (17) 2 (15) 6 (46) 0.072
 IL-9 1 (2) 0 (0) 1 (8) 0.487
 IL-10 1 (2) 3 (23) 10 (77) < 0.0001*
 IL-17A 3 (7) 0 (0) 8 (61) < 0.0001*
 TNFα 0 (0) 0 (0) 9 (69) < 0.0001*
 G-CSF 16 (39) 4 (31) 11 (85) 0.007
 IFNα 3 (7) 1 (8) 13 (100) < 0.0001*
 IFNγ 2 (5) 0 (0) 2 (15) 0.227
 IL-13 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (8) 0.121
 IL-1β 1 (2) 0 (0) 5 (38) 0.0001*
 IL-8 6 (15) 7 (54) 3 (23) 0.015
 IL-12/23p40 17 (41) 5 (38) 13 (100) 0.0006*
1997 ACR criteria
 Positive ANAs 34 (83) 11 (85) 13 (100) 0.282
 Immunologic criteria 32 (78) 10 (77) 12 (92) 0.491
 Hematologic criteria 28 (68) 13 (100) 7 (54) 0.024
 Non-erosive arthritis 28 (68) 7 (54) 12 (92) 0.092
 Photosensitivity 26 (63) 8 (61) 7 (54) 0.826
 Malar rash 20 (49) 7 (54) 6 (46) 0.921
 Renal criteriaa 14 (34) 6 (46) 5 (38) 0.734
 Oral ulcers 14 (34) 5 (38) 4 (31) 0.917
 Serositis 10 (24) 5 (38) 4 (31) 0.604
 Neurologic criteria 4 (10) 4 (31) 4 (31) 0.091
 Discoid rash 3 (7) 3 (2) 1 (8) 0.252
  1. Data correspond to number of patients (%)
  2. RF rheumatoid factor, CCP3 anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide third-generation, TPOAb anti-thyroperoxidase antibody, TgAb anti-thyroglobulin antibody, dsDNA anti-double stranded DNA antibodies, ACA anticardiolipin antibody, β2GP1 β2 glycoprotein-1, ANAs antinuclear antibodies, IL interleukin, G-CSF granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, IFN interferon, TNF tumor necrosis factor, ACR American College of Rheumatology
  3. * Statistically significant after Bonferroni correction
  4. aRenal criteria was defined as active urinary sediment, or proteinuria > 500 mg/24 h or positive renal biopsy [23, 24]