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Table 1 Skin-resident cells interacting with Treg cells

From: Therapeutic application of T regulatory cells in composite tissue allotransplantation

Cell type Action References
Langerhans cells Activate and proliferate Treg cells in resting state; limit activation of Treg cells in presence of pathogen [116]
Induce Treg cells favoring flora tolerance with limited antigens presentation [117]
Induce Treg cells by secretion of IL-10 and TGF-β [118]
Memory Treg cells Localize to hair follicles
Non-migratory and non-responsive in normal skin
Proliferate and produce IL-17 in inflamed skin
Are activated, proliferated and differentiated into potent suppressor
Attenuate autoimmune reactions in tissues upon repeated responses to antigens
Macrophages Promote expression of the chemokine CCL22
Induce migration and activation of Treg cells
Express M2-like TIM-4hiCD169+
Act immunoregulatory function and promote engraftment of cardiac allografts
Mast cells Act as intermediate at Treg cells dependent allograft tolerance via IL-9 [123]
Counteract Treg cell function through IL-6 and OX40/OX40L axis toward Th17 cell differentiation [124]
Dermal dendritic cells Are capable of antigen capture and presentation to CD4+ T cells and Treg cells generation [125]
Dermal regulatory cells Induce Treg cells through PD-1 engagement with expression of ABCB5+ molecules [126]
Dermal fibroblasts Induce proliferation of natural Treg cells with IL-15 [127]
Dermal stromal cells Express CD90+ and induce Tregs cells [128]
  1. CCL chemokine ligand, TIM T cell immunoglobulin mucin, ABCB5 ATP binding cassette subfamily B member 5