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Fig. 1 | Journal of Translational Medicine

Fig. 1

From: Therapeutic application of T regulatory cells in composite tissue allotransplantation

Fig. 1

a Treg cells development pathways, b human Treg cell expressing markers, and c workflow of therapeutic application of donor antigen-specific Treg cells in CTA. a Treg cells development pathways. In the thymus, T cell precursors derived from bone marrow progenitor cells are developed into thymic Treg (tTreg) cells and exported to the periphery. Peripheral Treg (pTreg) cells are induced by naïve CD4+CD25 T cells. b Human Treg cells expressing markers. Expression of CD4, CD25, FoxP3, CLTA-4, CD39, HLA-DR, LAP, GARP, and HELIOS is frequently observed in human Treg cells. c A workflow of therapeutic application of donor antigen-specific Treg cells in CTA. As a positive selection step to enrich CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg cells, a sub-saturating concentration of anti-CD4 antibody and anti-CD25 antibody is used to capture CD4+ and CD25bright fractions (I, isolation). To produce donor antigen-specific Treg cells, DCs (or APCs), B cells, or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are applied (II, antigen-specificity). After priming in mixed lymphocyte reaction, Treg cells are stimulated with anti-CD3 antibody and anti-CD28 antibody for enrichment and expansion (III, expansion). Finally, expanded Treg cells are injected back to the recipient in CTA (IV, Treg cells injection and CTA)

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