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Table 1 Properties of two different type of EPCs

From: Multiple therapeutic effect of endothelial progenitor cell regulated by drugs in diabetes and diabetes related disorder

Characteristics Early EPCS Late EPCS
Morphology Elongated and spindle shape Cobblestone appearance
Appearance in culture 4–7 days of culture 2–4 weeks
Purity Heterogeneous group of cells that differentiate from hemangioblasts to mature endothelial cells Homogeneous and well differentiated. Derived mainly from “early” EPC
Life span 3–4 weeks Up to 12 weeks
Proliferation potential Low compared to “late” EPCs Highly proliferating
Gene expression Week expression of VE-cadherin and KDR. The level of Flt-1 expression elevated Strong expression of VE-cadherin, Flt-1, KDR, and e-NOS, vWF
eNOS expression Less competent endothelial function producing nitric oxide High competent endothelial function producing nitric oxide