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Table 2 Immune marker studies

From: The European ME/CFS Biomarker Landscape project: an initiative of the European network EUROMENE

Marker(Ref)

Design of study

ME/CFS pat. n/diagnostic criteria

Controls n/age- and sex-matched

Sub group analysis

Validation cohort

Results in ME/CFS compared to healthy controls

Immunoglobulins (Ig), MBL [4]

Confirmatory

300/CCC

Reference range

Yes

168

25% diminished Ig

25% elevated Ig

15% MBL diminished

B cells [4]

 

65/CCC

20/no

 

20

B cell subsets not altered

IgG3 IgE COMT [5]

Exploratory

76/CCC

74/no

Yes

No

COMT rs4680 is associated with IgG3 and IgE levels

EBV-specific IgG

EBV-B and T cells [7]

Confirmatory

Exploratory

63/CDC

17

57/no

12/no

Yes

387

No

More EBNA-IgG neg.

More VCA-IgM pos

EBV B-/T cells lower

HSP60 auto-antibodies [13]

Exploratory

69/CCC

76/no

Yes

61

Few IgG epitopes specific for ME/CFS

Neurotransmitter-receptor auto-antibodies [6]

Exploratory/confirmatory

268/CCC

108/yes

Yes

No

Elevated β2 adrenergic, M3/4 cholinergic receptor antibodies in a subset of ME/CFS

Cytokines [10]

Exploratory

120/CDC

68/yes

Yes

No

Multiple cytokines no differences

Cytokines [8]

Exploratory

48/CDC

35/no

No

No

Elevated CRP, TNF-alpha and IL-6 levels

Cytokines [15]

Review

38 papers

   

TGF-β levels elevated in 5 of 8 studies (63%)

Cytokines [3]

Exploratory

16/CDC

14/yes

No

No

Increase of IL-1b, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-alpha levels

BAFF, APRIL [9]

Exploratory

70/CCC & CDC

56/no

Yes

No

Elevated BAFF baseline

APRIL not altered

T cells [11]

Exploratory

139/CDC

40/no

Yes

No

Increased CD38 expression on CD8+ T cells

NK, T and B cells [12]

Exploratory

22/CDC

30/no

No

No

Treg higher, Tem lower, NK cell CD69, NKp46 higher, CD25 lower, B cell subsets not altered

B cells [16]

Exploratory

38/CCC & CDC

32/yes

No

No

Increased CD24 expression on total B cells

Elevated number of CD21+ CD38− B cells

B cells [14]

Exploratory

33/CCC & CDC

24/yes

No

No

Increased number of naïve and transitional B cells

miRNA in immune cell subsets [17]

Exploratory

35/CCC & CDC

50/no

No

No

34 miRNAs upregulated in NK, B cells and monocytes

  1. Diagnostic criteria: CDC the Centers of Disease Control or Fukuda Criteria [49], CCC Canadian Consensus Criteria