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Table 2 Immune marker studies

From: The European ME/CFS Biomarker Landscape project: an initiative of the European network EUROMENE

Marker(Ref) Design of study ME/CFS pat. n/diagnostic criteria Controls n/age- and sex-matched Sub group analysis Validation cohort Results in ME/CFS compared to healthy controls
Immunoglobulins (Ig), MBL [4] Confirmatory 300/CCC Reference range Yes 168 25% diminished Ig 25% elevated Ig 15% MBL diminished
B cells [4]   65/CCC 20/no   20 B cell subsets not altered
IgG3 IgE COMT [5] Exploratory 76/CCC 74/no Yes No COMT rs4680 is associated with IgG3 and IgE levels
EBV-specific IgG EBV-B and T cells [7] Confirmatory Exploratory 63/CDC 17 57/no 12/no Yes 387 No More EBNA-IgG neg. More VCA-IgM pos EBV B-/T cells lower
HSP60 auto-antibodies [13] Exploratory 69/CCC 76/no Yes 61 Few IgG epitopes specific for ME/CFS
Neurotransmitter-receptor auto-antibodies [6] Exploratory/confirmatory 268/CCC 108/yes Yes No Elevated β2 adrenergic, M3/4 cholinergic receptor antibodies in a subset of ME/CFS
Cytokines [10] Exploratory 120/CDC 68/yes Yes No Multiple cytokines no differences
Cytokines [8] Exploratory 48/CDC 35/no No No Elevated CRP, TNF-alpha and IL-6 levels
Cytokines [15] Review 38 papers     TGF-β levels elevated in 5 of 8 studies (63%)
Cytokines [3] Exploratory 16/CDC 14/yes No No Increase of IL-1b, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-alpha levels
BAFF, APRIL [9] Exploratory 70/CCC & CDC 56/no Yes No Elevated BAFF baseline APRIL not altered
T cells [11] Exploratory 139/CDC 40/no Yes No Increased CD38 expression on CD8+ T cells
NK, T and B cells [12] Exploratory 22/CDC 30/no No No Treg higher, Tem lower, NK cell CD69, NKp46 higher, CD25 lower, B cell subsets not altered
B cells [16] Exploratory 38/CCC & CDC 32/yes No No Increased CD24 expression on total B cells Elevated number of CD21+ CD38− B cells
B cells [14] Exploratory 33/CCC & CDC 24/yes No No Increased number of naïve and transitional B cells
miRNA in immune cell subsets [17] Exploratory 35/CCC & CDC 50/no No No 34 miRNAs upregulated in NK, B cells and monocytes
  1. Diagnostic criteria: CDC the Centers of Disease Control or Fukuda Criteria [49], CCC Canadian Consensus Criteria