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Table 1 Characteristics of TOF patients with (TOF-HF) and without symptomatic right heart failure (TOF-noHF)

From: Analysis of circulating microRNAs in patients with repaired Tetralogy of Fallot with and without heart failure

Variables Controls (n = 15) All patients (n = 37) TOF-noHF (n = 34) TOF-HF (n = 3) P value*
Age at follow-up (years) 30.2 ± 10.8 30.2 ± 10.8 29.9 ± 10.7 33.0 ± 13.9 NS
Follow-up time (years) 24.8 ± 8.9 25.1 ± 8.1 24.7 ± 17.7 NS
Age at primary corrective surgery (years) 4.9 ± 3.5 4.6 ± 3.5 8.0 ± 2.6 0.079
Prior BT shunt (%) 20/37 (54.1) 19/34 (55.9) 1/3 (33.3) NS
Presence of pulmonary bioprosthetic valve or homograft (%) 15/37 (40.5) 14/34 (41.2) 1/3 (33.3) NS
Presence of moderate to severe residual pulmonary regurgitation (%) 8/37 (21.6) 6/34 (17.6) 2/3 (66.7) NS
Residual peak systolic pressure gradient across RVOT >40 mmHg (%) 11/37 (29.7) 10/34 (29.4) 1/3 (33.3) NS
NYHA functional class 1.1 ± 0.3 1.3 ± 0.6 1.1 ± 0.3 2.7 ± 0.6 <0.001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 119.7 ± 10.8 122.2 ± 13.2 122.7 ± 13.7 115.7 ± 2.5 NS
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 66.7 ± 6.2 70.4 ± 8.4 70.0 ± 8.6 75.0 ± 3.6 NS
Transcutaneous oxygen saturation at rest (%) 98.1 ± 1.1 97.7 ± 1.4 97.7 ± 1.4 97.3 ± 1.5 NS
Presence of any medication such as β-blocker, ACE inhibitor/AT1 blocker or diuretics (%) 14/37 (37.8) 11/34 (32.2) 3/3 (100.0) 0.047
Ejection fraction of RV (%) 62.9 ± 3.7 53.5 ± 8.5 55.5 ± 5.9 33.3 ± 2.3 0.005
Enddiastolic volume of RV (ml/m2 BSA) 28.7 ± 8.5 61.8 ± 29.2 55.9 ± 22.3 122.4 ± 23.9 0.007
Endsystolic volume of RV (ml/m2 BSA) 10.6 ± 3.35 30.6 ± 21.1 25.5 ± 12.2 84.1 ± 21.4 0.006
Ejection fraction of LV (%) 62.6 ± 3.2 58.4 ± 9.9 60.6 ± 6.0 33.1 ± 11.8 0.005
Enddiastolic volume of LV (ml/m2 BSA) 62.5 ± 13.9 58.5 ± 17.3 56.0 ± 14.4 87.0 ± 25.0 0.014
Endsystolic volume of LV (ml/m2 BSA) 23.5 ± 6.0 27.2 ± 13.0 24.5 ± 8.1 57.9 ± 20.3 0.005
VTI above aortic valve (cm) 27.4 ± 3.5 22.6 ± 4.6 23.4 ± 3.8 14.0 ± 3.6 0.008
Creatinine (mg/dl) ND 0.83 (0.69–0.90) 0.82 (0.69–0.88) 0.92 (0.70–1.36) NS
Estimated glomerular filtration rate (ml/min) ND 106.2 ± 19.8 107.8 ± 15.6 89.4 ± 49.6 NS
NT-proBNP (pg/ml) ND 146.0 (74.8–236.2) 139.6 (65.6–215.2) 1747.0 (1531.0–2939.5) 0.005
High sensitive troponin T (pg/ml) ND 4.5 (3.0–6.0) 4.0 (3.0–6.0) 6.0 (6.0–9.5) 0.057
  1. Mean ± standard deviation or median (interquartile range) are used
  2. TOF Tetralogy of Fallot, BT Blalock–Taussig, RVOT right ventricular outflow tract, NYHA New York Heart Association, RV right ventricle, BSA body surface area, LV left ventricle, VTI velocity time integral, ND not determined, NS not significant
  3. * Patients with compared to those without symptomatic right heart failure (TOF-HF versus TOF-noHF)