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Table 2 List of recent studies investigating nanoparticle-mediated delivery of tumor antigen(s) either alone or in combination with adjuvant(s)/DC-targeting moieties for cancer therapeutic vaccination

From: The era of bioengineering: how will this affect the next generation of cancer immunotherapy?

Carrier Loaded with Study type Outcomea References
Liposome Hsp70 peptide complex Breast cancer mouse model Enhanced immune response [165]
Liposome MUC1 peptide, TLR4 ligand Phase I–II–III studies Phase I studies: vaccine was well tolerated; phase II study in NSCLC: survival improvement; Phase III study in NSCLC: only improvement observed was in concurrent chemoradiotherapy with a 10.2 month improvement in median survival [96, 97, 101, 103]
Liposome HLA-B7 and β2-microglobulin DNA Phase II-III studies Phase II study in metastatic melanoma had a positive outcome, but phase III study failed and product is currently discontinued [102, 104]
Liposome NY-ESO-1, MAGE-A3, tyrosinase and TPTE RNA Phase I study Positive outcome in all 3 patients tested. Recruitment of more patients is currently undergoing [98]
Liposome Mix of different peptides Phase I study Phase I trial positive outcome, with induced de novo and specific T cell response [99, 100]
Liposome SOCS1, A20 siRNA Mouse lymphoma model Drastic enhancement in cytokine production resulting in significant tumor suppression [166]
Liposome E7 HPV TC-1 lung mouse model Induced specific CD8+T cell response and Treg inhibition [167]
Liposome OVA, TLR3/9 ligands C57BL/6 mouse model Increased CD8+ T cell response [123]
γ-PGA/Polylysine Empty or ovalbumin C57BL/6 mouse model Comparative study: PGA has intrinsic immunogenic properties and induced a stronger immune response than polylysine when both loaded with ovalbumin [160]
γ-PGA Ovalbumin C57BL/6 mouse model γ-PGA immunogenic properties are TLR4 signalling-dependent [168]
Cationic polymers (PE/C32) CD40 ligand DNA, CpG + poly(I:C) B16-F10 melanoma mouse model Comparative study: C32 polimer was superior to PE. TLR ligands had a synergistic effect in triggering immune response [124]
PLGA WTL In vitro Co-culture of patient TILs with patient DCs pulsed with autologous WTL-NPs resulted in higher IFN-γ and lower IL-10 production compared to soluble WTL [110, 111]
PLGA WTL, CpG, polyI:C TRAMP mouse model Induced CTL response and tumor shrinkage [112]
PLGA WTL In vitro Increased T cell proliferation [113]
PLGA Ovalbumin TLR3/7 ligands; CD40, CD11c, or DEC-205 ab C57BL/6 mouse model NP coating with targeting molecules (CD40, CD11c or DEC-205 antibodies) induced a stronger immune response [106]
PLGA Ovalbumin, mannose C57BL/6 mouse model Decoration of ovalbumin-NPs with mannose moieties increased the efficiency of ovalbumin-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses [107]
PLGA TRP2180–188; TLR-4 ligand B16-F10 melanoma mouse model Immune stimulation in the tumor microenvironment, induction of antigen-specific CD8+ response [108]
PLGA Hgp10025–33 TRP2180–188 C57BL/6 mouse model Increased antigen-specific T cell response [109]
Cholesteryl pullulan HER2 fragment; NY-ESO-1 protein Phase I studies Vaccine was well tolerated and induced antigen-specific immune responses [114,115,116]
Chitosan Ovalbumin, alginate In vitro Sugar-coated NP induced higher IFN-γ production in co-culture assays [169]
Chitosan WTL, mannose B16 melanoma mouse model Increased tumor growth inhibition [117]
BSA/pyridine Ovalbumin In vitro This type of nanogel had intrinsic adjuvant properties [170]
Nanogel Ovalbumin, galactose B16-OVA mouse model (pH-sensitive system) cytosolic antigen release; ROS production and increased MHC-I antigen presentation [133]
  1. γ-PGA poly(γ-glutamic acid), BSA bovine serum albumin, NP nanoparticle, NSCLC non-small-cell carcinoma, PLGA poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), TLR toll-like receptor, TRAMP transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate, WTL whole tumor lysate
  2. aCompared to free soluble agent, when applicable