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Table 1 List of recent studies investigating nanoparticle-mediated delivery of immunomodulatory agents

From: The era of bioengineering: how will this affect the next generation of cancer immunotherapy?

Carrier Agent Model system Outcomea References
mPEG-PLGA Oxaliplatin Pan02 pancreatic cancer mouse model Increased TIL levels, increased IFN-γ production [10]
Chitosan IL-12 MB49 bladder tumor mouse model Induced antitumoral activity and TH1 cytokine expression [14]
Chitosan IL-12 MB49 and MBT-2 bladder tumor mouse models 100% protection to tumor rechallenge in previously cured mice [15]
Liposome Cisplatin CpG B16–F10 melanoma mouse model Tumor clearance, long-term protection, Treg downregulation [31]
Nanodiamond CpG B16–F0 melanoma and 4T1 breast cancer mouse models IL-12 production and tumor shrinkage [25]
PEI IL-2 plasmid B16–F1 melanoma mouse model Reduced tumor growth, prolonged survival, increased TIL tumor infiltration [18]
Chitosan IL-2 plasmid BALB/c mouse inoculated with WEHI-164 in vitro transfected cells Tumor mass volume decrease [162]
Hydroxyethyl starch IL-2 C57BL/6 mouse model; Rag2−/−γc−/− mice reconstituted with human CD4+ T cells In vivo T cell specific uptake [20]
Nanolipogel IL-2 and TGF-β inhibitor B16-F10 melanoma mouse model Increased survival
Increased CD8+ T cells tumor infiltration
Polylactic acid IL-12, IL-18, TNF-α alone or in combinations 4T1 breast cancer mouse models IL-12 and TNF-α combination was the best condition for controlling tumor growth [163]
PLGA-PEI CpG, IL-10 siRNA A20 B-cell lymphoma mouse model Improved TH1/TH2 cytokine expression ratio, Increased survival [22]
IL-10 siRNA
B16–F10 melanoma mouse model Tumor growth inhibition
High TH1/TH2 cytokine expression ratio
PPS CpG E.G7-OVA and B16F10 mouse model Enhanced TH1 cytokine secretion and protection to tumor rechallenge [26]
silica GM-CSF In vitro Increased macrophage proliferation [24]
Zinc oxide Poly I:C B16–F10 mouse melanoma model suppressed tumor cell growth [28]
PS Poly I:C C57BL/6 mouse model High IL6 production; tnfa, il15, il18, mip3a, and ip10 mRNA upregulation [164]
PLGA Paclitaxel LPS B16–F10 mouse melanoma model Increased TIL levels and tumor regression [33]
Pyridyl disulfide Paclitaxel or CpG B16–F10 mouse melanoma model Slowed tumor growth, increased CD8+/CD4+ T cell ratio [27]
Albumin Paclitaxel Phase I studies Combination with IL-2, IFN-α, cisplatin and temozolomide was too toxic; combination with atezolizumab was well tolerated [53, 54]
Liposome DOX Phase I study Combination with IL-18 is safe and biologically active [55]
PEG-liposome DOX Phase I study Functional IL-6R blocking with tocilizumab is feasible and safe in combination with PEG-liposomal DOX [56]
  1. DOX doxorubicin, HA hyaluronic acid, LPS bacterial lipopolysaccharide, PEG polyethylene glycol, PEI polyethylenimine, PLGA poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), PPS poly(propylene sulphide), PS polysaccharide, TIL tumor infiltrating lymphocytes
  2. aCompared to free soluble agent, when applicable