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Table 1 Comparison of body composition parameters of normal weight lean, normal weight obese and pre-obese/obese groups between baseline and after 3 weeks POS treatment

From: Can psychobiotics intake modulate psychological profile and body composition of women affected by normal weight obese syndrome and obesity? A double blind randomized clinical trial

  NWL NWO PreobOB
Baseline POS Baseline POS Baseline POS
Age (years) 30.18 ± 2.04 (28.00–33.00) 40.00 ± 12.56 (27.00–56.00) 33.57 ± 10.57 (24.00–50.00)
Height (cm) 164.64 ± 4.03 (160.00–170.00) 162.90 ± 6.60 (154.00–168.00) 158.33 ± 1.86 (155.60–160.00)
Weight (kg) 55.55 ± 4.65¤,° (50.50–62.50) 54.84 ± 5.63Ϫ,ϣ (49.20–63.00) 63.50 ± 3.97¥ (59.00–68.30) 63.10 ± 3.27 (59.00–66.60) 69.47 ± 6.07 (63.80–78.00) 63.35 ± 0.16b (63.20–63.50)
BMI (kg/m2) 20.47 ± 1.04¤,° (19.48–22.41) 20.49 ± 1.40Ϫ,ϣ (18.98–22.59) 23.94 ± 0.93¥ (22.74–24.88) 23.80 ± 0.84a,Ϭ (22.92–24.88) 27.68 ± 1.92 (25.56–30.47) 25.78 ± 0.48b (25.32–26.23)
Waist (cm) 67.41 ± 4.22 (64.50–75.00)° 67.98 ± 4.60Ϫ,ϣ (63.80–75.00) 74.25 ± 5.08 (69.50–79.00) 75.33 ± 4.70 (70.00–81.00) 80.17 ± 8.02 (73.00–91.00) 73.75 ± 2.35b (71.50–76.00)
Hip (cm) 94.09 ± 4.57 ¤,° (87.00–97.00) 93.23 ± 4.35 Ϫ,ϣ (87.50–97.00) 103.25 ± 5.61¥ (98.00–108.50) 101.00 ± 3.72Ϭ (98.00–106.00) 107.73 ± 0.54 (107.00–108.20) 106.75 ± 0.78b (106.00–107.50)
Resistance (Ohm) 595.89 ± 85.36 (501.00–735.00) 598.33 ± 69.50 ϣ (497.00–690.00) 576.67 ± 55.46 (526.00–650.00) 567.00 ± 53.60a (513.00–636.00) 565.13 ± 35.34 (526.00–611.00) 523.00 ± 24.02b (500.00–546.00)
Reactance (Ohm) 66.00 ± 12.24 (56.00–87.00) 65.89 ± 8.46 (56.00–73.00) 61.33 ± 7.74¥ (53.00–71.00) 59.67 ± 8.75a,Ϭ (51.00–71.00) 73.43 ± 9.54 (66.00–89.00) 69.50 ± 6.79 (63.00–76.00)
PA (°) 6.30 ± 0.35° (5.90–6.80) 6.29 ± 0.46ϣ (5.70–6.80) 6.13 ± 0.89¥ (5.30–7.30) 6.03 ± 0.97a,Ϭ (5.10–7.30) 7.40 ± 0.59 (6.70–8.30) 7.55 ± 0.37b (7.20–7.90)
TBW (L) 31.80 ± 2.83 (29.10–36.60) 31.66 ± 3.00 (29.70–36.90) 33.13 ± 2.50¥ (31.10–36.50) 33.40 ± 2.56a (31.10–36.80) 32.93 ± 0.36 (32.60–33.50) 33.35 ± 1.10 (32.30–34.40)
TBW (%) 57.92 ± 4.19¤,° (50.80–61.30) 57.82 ± 3.19 (52.40–60.40) 52.10 ± 1.37¥ (50.30–53.40) 52.90 ± 2.01a (50.60–55.30) 47.79 ± 4.30 (42.00–52.60) 52.65 ± 1.83b (50.90–54.40)
ECW (L) 14.11 ± 1.33 (12.40–16.10) 14.07 ± 1.39 (12.60–16.10) 15.10 ± 2.01¥ (12.50–17.10) 15.37 ± 2.18a,Ϭ (12.50–17.40) 13.22 ± 0.74 (12.10–14.00) 13.20 ± 0.84b (12.40–14.00)
ECW (%) 44.42 ± 1.38° (42.50–46.00) 43.93 ± 2.64ϣ (40.80–47.20) 45.53 ± 3.93¥ (40.40–49.30) 45.87 ± 4.29a,Ϭ (40.30–50.10) 40.17 ± 2.02 (37.10–42.60) 39.50 ± 1.36b (38.20–40.80)
ICW (L) 17.66 ± 1.63° (16.70–20.50) 17.59 ± 1.86ϣ (16.20–20.80) 18.00 ± 1.45¥ (16.10–19.40) 18.03 ± 1.47a, Ϭ (16.10–19.40) 19.71 ± 0.63 (18.90–20.60) 20.15 ± 0.26b (19.90–20.40)
ICW (%) 55.58 ± 1.38° (54.00–57.50) 55.62 ± 1.91ϣ (52.92–57.58) 54.50 ± 3.91¥ (50.70–59.60) 54.12 ± 4.37a,Ϭ (49.85–59.81) 59.83 ± 2.02 (57.40–62.90) 60.61 ± 1.37b (59.30–61.92)
TBFat (%) 26.55 ± 2.83¤,° (24.10–29.00) 35.25 ± 1.44¥ (33.90–36.60) 43.80 ± 0.00 (43.80–43.80)
TBFat (kg) 15.15 ± 0.01¤,° (15.14–15.16) 21.73 ± 1.73¥ (20.11–23.34) 34.10 ± 0.00 (34.10–34.10)
TBLean (kg) 40.17 ± 5.98 (34.99–45.35) 37.61 ± 0.57 (37.08–38.14) 41.26 ± 0.00 (41.26–41.26)
FM (kg) 11.35 ± 2.86¤,° (8.10–15.10) 11.80 ± 3.12c,Ϫ,ϣ (8.10–16.00) 18.00 ± 1.64 (15.90–19.70) 17.27 ± 1.80a (15.80–19.70) 18.65 ± 0.99 (17.70–19.60) 16.95 ± 0.99b (16.00–17.90)
FM (%) 20.30 ± 4.06¤,° (16.10–26.40) 21.05 ± 4.43c,Ϫ,ϣ (16.50–27.80) 28.37 ± 2.09 (26.90–31.20) 27.57 ± 2.58a (25.00–30.90) 29.10 ± 1.36 (27.80–30.40) 26.70 ± 1.46b (25.30–28.10)
FFM (kg) 44.23 ± 3.57 (42.20–50.00) 43.75 ± 4.06 (41.10–50.30) 45.50 ± 3.25 (43.10–49.90) 45.83 ± 3.32a (43.20–50.30) 45.50 ± 0.63 (44.90–46.10) 46.40 ± 0.84b (45.60–47.20)
FFM (%) 79.70 ± 4.06¤,° (73.60–83.90) 78.95 ± 4.43c,Ϫ,ϣ (72.20–83.50) 71.63 ± 2.09 (68.80–73.10) 72.43 ± 2.58a (69.10–75.00) 70.90 ± 1.36 (69.60–72.20) 73.30 ± 1.46b (71.90–74.70)
  1. Results are expressed in mean value ± standard deviation, and minimum and maximum for each parameter. Values of p < 0.05 are considered significant
  2. BMI body mass index, ECW extracellular water, FM fat mass, FFM fat free mass, ICW intracellular water, NWL normal weight lean, NWO normal weight obese, PA phase angle, PreOB/OB preobese–obese, TB total body, TBW total body water
  3. aNWO T0 vs T1 p < 0.05; b PreOB/OB T0 vs T1 p < 0.05 c NWL T0 vs T1. For Anova-test at baseline p < 0.05; ¤ NWL vs NWO p < 0.05; ¥ NWO vs PreOB/OB p < 0.05; ° NWL vs PreOB/OB p < 0.05. Anova-test after POS p < 0.05; Ϫ NWL vs NWO p < 0.05; Ϭ NWO vs PreOB/OB p < 0.05; ϣ NWL vs PreOB/OB p < 0.05