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Fig. 2 | Journal of Translational Medicine

Fig. 2

From: Betaine promotes cell differentiation of human osteoblasts in primary culture

Fig. 2

Betaine activates ERKs pathway and IGF-I gene and protein expression. a Representative western blot and relevant quantification of ERK pathway activation: in hObs treated with 10 mM BET, ERK1/2 activation peak was observed at 15 min. b 10 mM BET increased significantly IGF-I gene expression respect to control (CONTR) at 3 and 6 h, as measured by real time PCR. c Immunofluorescence study and relevant quantification showed an increase in the number of IGF-I positive cells in BET condition at 6 and 24 h (magnification: 20×). d Representative western blot and relevant quantification: after 15 min, BET induced a significant activation of p70 S6 kinase. Data are the mean ± SD of six experiments performed with cells obtained from different donors. ANOVA for non parametric data (Kruskal–Wallis) with Dunn’s multiple comparison test: ***p ≤ 0.001 vs control. For western blot-immunofluorescence studies, Student’s t test: *p ≤ 0.05, **p ≤ 0.01, ***p ≤ 0.001

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