Skip to main content


Fig. 1 | Journal of Translational Medicine

Fig. 1

From: Betaine promotes cell differentiation of human osteoblasts in primary culture

Fig. 1

Effects of Betaine on osteogenic gene and protein expression in human osteoblasts. a Real time PCR assay: 10 mM BET stimulated significantly, compared to control (CONTR), the gene expression of RUNX2 at 1 and 3 h, of OSX at 1, 3 and 6 h, of BSP at 3 h and of OPN at 3 and 6 h. b Immunofluorescence staining of OPN protein after 6 h of 10 mM BET treatment and relevant quantification showing an increase in OPN protein compared to control (CONTR). Osteoblastic morphology was analyzed by Phalloidin (red) and OPN (green) staining (magnification: 20×). c Representative western blot and relevant quantification of OPN protein content increased after 24 h of 10 mM BET treatment. Data are the mean ± SD of six to nine experiments performed with cells obtained from different donors. ANOVA for non parametric data (Kruskal–Wallis) with Dunn’s multiple comparison test: *p ≤ 0.05, **p ≤ 0.01, ***p ≤ 0.001 vs control (CONTR). For western blot-immunofluorescence studies, Student’s t test: *p ≤ 0.05

Back to article page