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Table 2 Characteristics of patients grouped in recovery and persistent pain group

From: MicroRNA-223 demonstrated experimentally in exosome-like vesicles is associated with decreased risk of persistent pain after lumbar disc herniation

  Recovery group n = 50 Persistent pain group n = 47 p value
Gender, men/women (%) 22/28 (44/56) 18/29 (38/62) n.sa
Mean age (min–max) 40 (22–58) 42 (21–59) n.sb
Current smoker, yes/no (%) 15/35 (30/70) 19/28 (40/60) n.sa
Treatment, surgery/conservative (%) 23/27 (46/54) 13/34 (28/72) <0.05a
  1. The recovery group was defined by a reduction in VAS (VAS inclusion—VAS 12 months) >2.0, whereas the persistent pain group was defined by a reduction in VAS (VAS inclusion—VAS 12 months) <2.0
  2. n.s not significant
  3. aPearson Chi square
  4. bUnpaired Student’s t test