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Fig. 2 | Journal of Translational Medicine

Fig. 2

From: A novel role of cellular interactions in vascular calcification

Fig. 2

Overview of cellular interaction networks regulating calcification in the vascular wall (aortic intima, media, adventitia). During the formation of VC, there are constant cross-talks in the form exosomes among three layers of vascular wall. In addition, a complex of signaling network, including BMP, Wnt/β-catenin, AGEs and OPG/RANK/RANKL signaling pathways, are frequently seen in adventitia-media cross-talk or intima-media cross-talk. AGEs advanced glycation end products, BMP bone morphogenetic protein, OPG osteoprotegerin, RANK receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB, RANKL receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB ligand, VC vascular calcification

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