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TableĀ 1 Comparison of four types of stem/progenitor cells for RD clinical application

From: Progress of stem/progenitor cell-based therapy for retinal degeneration

Cell types RPCs ESCs iPSCs MSCs
Derivation/generation sources Foetal and postnatal retina Developing embryos Terminally differentiated tissues Developmentally mature organs
Advantages Simplicity, accessibility and safety (minimal trauma); immune privilege; ready neuroprotection; no tumourigenicity; no requirement of immunosuppressive drugs Differentiation into various retinal cell types; providing abundant donor cells Without ethical concerns; low risk of immune rejection (autologous hiPSC derivatives); gene therapy Trophic support; immunosuppression
Disadvantages Low rate of cell proliferation Ethical concerns; tumourigenicity; requirement of immunosuppressive treatment throughout life Low differentiation efficiency; biosafety concerns (e.g., genetic abnormalities) Low rate of cell migration and differentiation