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Table 1 Summary of quantified oxylipins and PUFAs including their metabolism and principal biological activity

From: Longitudinal analysis of serum oxylipin profile as a novel descriptor of the inflammatory response to surgery

Compound Synonym PUFA precursor Enzymatic Pathway Intrinsic activity Principal biological action
C20:3 (DGLA) Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid    Inactive  
C20:4 (AA) Arachidonic acid    Inactive  
C20:5 (EPA) Eicosapentaenoic acid    Inactive  
C22:6 (DHA) Docosahexaenoic acid    Inactive  
9-HODE   LA LOX (12-LOX) Active Increases fibrinolysis
13-HODE   LA LOX (15-LOX) Active Reduces platelets adhesivity
5-HETE   AA LOX (5-LOX) Active Promotes neutrophil degranulation, stimulates calcium mobilisation
8-HETE   AA LOX (15-LOX) Active Inhibits leukocyte migration and promotes wound healing by PPARα activation
11-HETE   AA COX Active Chemo-attractant, promotes neutrophil recruitment
12-HETE   AA LOX (12-LOX) Active Chemo-attractant, promotes neutrophil recruitment
15-HETE   AA LOX (15-LOX) Active Inhibits both neutrophil migration through the endothelium and LTB4 synthesis, activates PPARβ/δ
5,6-DHET   AA CYP450 Inactive Stable marker for 5,6-EET which promotes angiogenesis
8,9-DHET   AA CYP450 Inactive Stable marker for 8,9-EET which promotes angiogenesis
11,12-DHET   AA CYP450 Inactive Stable marker for 11,12-EET which promotes angiogenesis and new tissue formation
14,15-DHET   AA CYP450 Inactive Stable marker for 14,15-EET which promotes new tissue formation
14-HDoHE   DHA LOX (12-LOX) Active Promotes wound closure and healing
17-HDoHE   DHA LOX (15-LOX) Active Inhibits pro-inflammatory mechanisms
12-Oxo-LTB4 12-Oxo leukotriene B4 AA LOX (5-LOX) Active Stable marker for LTB4 which is chemo-attractant and promotes neutrophil recruitment
6-Keto-PGF1α 6-Keto prostaglandin F1α AA COX Inactive Stable marker for PGI2 which inhibits platelet aggregation and induces vasodilatation
PGF2α Prostaglandin F2α AA COX Active Promotes vasoconstriction
TxB2 Thromboxane B2 AA COX Inactive Increases platelet aggregation, stimulates activation of new platelets
  1. HODE hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid, HETE hydroxy eicosatetraenoic acid, DHET dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid, HDoHE hydroxy docosahexaenoic acid, LA linoleic acid, EET epoxyeicosatrienoic acid, LT leukotriene, LOX leukotriene oxidase, CYP450 cytochrome P450, COX cyclo-oxygenase, PG prostaglandin, PPAR peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor. Some oxylipins can present a time-dependent inflammatory activity which may be different from the main reported one